Director of Central Intelligence

From Wikipedia:

The Office of United States Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) was the head of the United States Central Intelligence Agency, the principal intelligence advisor to the President and the National Security Council, and the coordinator of intelligence activities among and between the various United States intelligence agencies (collectively known as the Intelligence Community since 1981).

The office existed from January 1946 to April 2005 and was replaced by Director of National Intelligence (DNI) and Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (D/CIA).


The post of DCI was established by President Harry Truman on January 23, 1946, with Admiral Sidney Souers occupying the position; it thus predates the establishment of the Central Intelligence Agency. The CIA was created by the National Security Act of 1947, which also created the National Security Council, while formally defining the duties of the Director of Central Intelligence.

Until April 2005, the DCI also served as the de-facto director of the CIA, and he was often referred to colloquially as the "CIA Director." After the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States and the subsequent investigation by the 9/11 Commission, a movement grew to re-organize the Intelligence Community. That movement prompted the creation, on April 21, 2005, of the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (DNI), whose responsibilities covered heading the Intelligence Community and advising the NSC. The same legislation also created the office of the chief administrator of the CIA, which is headed by separate Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. The position of DCI then expired.

Porter J. Goss was the 19th and final DCI to also serve as the director of the CIA.

List of Directors of Central Intelligence (in chronological order)
Director Tenure
RADM Sidney Souers, USN January 23, 1946 – June 10, 1946
LTG Hoyt Vandenberg, USA June 10, 1946 – May 1, 1947
RADM Roscoe H. Hillenkoetter, USN May 1, 1947 – October 7, 1950
GEN Walter Bedell Smith, USA October 7, 1950 – February 9, 1953
Allen W. Dulles February 26, 1953 – November 29, 1961
John McCone November 29, 1961 – April 28, 1965
VADM William Raborn, USN (Ret.) April 28, 1965 – June 30, 1966
Richard M. Helms June 30, 1966 – February 2, 1973
James R. Schlesinger February 2, 1973 – July 2, 1973
William E. Colby September 4, 1973 – January 30, 1976
George H. W. Bush January 30, 1976 – January 20, 1977
ADM Stansfield Turner, USN March 9, 1977 – January 20, 1981
William J. Casey January 28, 1981 – January 29, 1987
William H. Webster May 26, 1987 – August 31, 1991
Robert M. Gates November 6, 1991 – January 20, 1993
R. James Woolsey February 5, 1993 – January 10, 1995
John M. Deutch May 10, 1995 – December 15, 1996
George J. Tenet July 11, 1997 – July 11, 2004
Porter J. Goss September 24, 2004 – April 21, 2005
Position replaced by Director of the Central Intelligence Agency and Director of National Intelligence.

Roscoe H. Hillenkoetter, 1947–1950

Rear Admiral Roscoe H. Hillenkoetter was appointed as the first Director of Central Intelligence (i.e., full Director of Central Intelligence[clarification needed]). During his tenure, a National Security Council Directive on Office of Special Projects, June 18, 1948, (NSC 10/2) further gave the CIA the authority to carry out covert operations "against hostile foreign states or groups or in support of friendly foreign states or groups but which are so planned and conducted that any US Government responsibility for them is not evident to unauthorized persons."[1] Those operations, however, were initially conducted by other agencies such as the Office of Policy Coordination. See Approval of Clandestine and Covert Operations and Clandestine HUMINT and Covert Action for details of the eventual merger of these operations with the CIA, as well as how the equivalent functions were done in other countries.

Walter Bedell Smith, 1950–1953

During the first years of its existence, other branches of the U.S. Federal government did not exercise very much supervision over the Central Intelligence Agency. Supposedly justified by the desire to match and defeat Soviet actions throughout the Eastern Hemisphere, it undertook a task that many believed could be accomplished only through an approach similar to the Soviet intelligence agencies, under names including NKVD, MVD, NKGB, MGB, and KGB. Those Soviet organizations also had domestic responsibilities.

Allen W. Dulles 1953–1961

The rapid expansion of the CIA, and a developed sense of independence under the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) Allen Dulles exacerbated the problem of the U.S. Intelligence Community's freedom from independent review. After the armed landing of Cuban exiles at the Bay of Pigs, Cuba, in 1961, President Kennedy discharged and replaced Dulles. Dulles had been an O.S.S. veteran from World War II. His autobiography,[2] is more noteworthy for giving insight into the mindset of key people in the field, than it is in giving a detailed description of the CIA and its operations.

John McCone 1961–1965

President John F. Kennedy exercised greater supervision, and he appointed a Republican with a general engineering background, John McCone. McCone, despite a lack of intelligence agency background, is often considered one of the most competent DCIs, and an excellent manager. He directed the CIA during the Cuban Missile Crisis. The agency stepped up its activity in Southeast Asia under President Lyndon Johnson. McCone resigned from his position of DCI in April 1965, believing himself to have been unappreciated by President Johnson. McCone's final policy memorandum to Johnson argued that expansion of the War in Vietnam would arouse national and world discontent over the war, before it defeated the North Vietnamese regime.

William Raborn 1965–1966

Raborn, a distinguished naval officer who directed the design and development of the entire Polaris ballistic missile submarine system, had a somewhat short and unhappy tenure as the DCI. His background included no foreign relations experience, and intelligence experience only concerning naval operations. CIA historians have said "Raborn did not 'take' to the DCI job", in their opinion.[3] Raborn resigned as the DCI on June 30, 1966, having served for only fourteen months. He was then replaced by his deputy, Richard Helms.

Richard M. Helms 1966–1973

Helms was an OSS and CIA veteran, and the first DCI to have risen through the ranks at CIA. Helms became the Director of the OSO after the CIA's disastrous role in the attempted Bay of Pigs Invasion of Cuba in 1961. After falling out with the Kennedys, he was sent off to Vietnam where he oversaw the coup to overthrow President Ngo Dinh Diem. Helms was made the Deputy Director of Central Intelligence under Admiral William Raborn. A year later, in 1966, he was appointed as the Director.

In the early 1970s, partially as a result of the Watergate Affair break-ins under President Richard M. Nixon, the United States Congress took a more active role in intelligence agencies, as did independent commissions such as the 1975 United States President's Commission on CIA activities within the United States, also called the Rockefeller Commission after its chairman. Revelations about past CIA activities, such as assassinations and attempted assassinations of foreign leaders, illegal domestic spying on American citizens, drew considerable Congressional oversight that had not been previously exercised. It was determined, by several investigating committees, that the CIA had given inappropriate assistance to persons affiliated with the White House and the 1972 Nixon reelection campaign.[citation needed] Certain of the individuals involved in the Watergate break-ins had worked, in the past, for the CIA. In an audio tape provoking President Nixon's resignation, Nixon ordered his chief of staff, H.R. Haldeman, to tell the CIA that further investigation of the Watergate Affair would "open the whole can of worms" about the Bay Of Pigs of Cuba, and, therefore, that the CIA should tell the FBI to cease investigating the Watergate burglary, due to reasons of "national security".[4]

The ease of Helms's role under President Lyndon Johnson changed with the arrival of President Richard Nixon and Nixon's national security advisor Henry Kissinger. After the debacle of Watergate, from which Helms succeeded in distancing the CIA as far as possible, the Agency came under much tighter congressional control. Nixon, however, considered Helms to be disloyal, and fired him as DCI in 1973. Helms was the only DCI convicted for irregularities in office; his autobiography describes his reactions to the charges.[5]

James R. Schlesinger 1973

On 2 February 1973 he became the Director of Central Intelligence, following the previous director Richard Helms, after he had been fired for his refusal to block the Watergate Affair's investigation. Schlesinger's first words upon becoming the DCI were, reportedly,[by whom?] "I'm here to make sure you don't screw Richard Nixon." Although his service at the CIA was short, barely six months, it was a stormy one as he again undertook comprehensive organizational and personnel changes. Schlesinger became so unpopular at the CIA Headquarters in Langley, Virginia, that a security camera was installed opposite his official portrait for fear that it would be vandalized. By this time he had a reputation as a tough, forthright, and outspoken administrator.[citation needed] Schesinger's appointment as the Secretary of Defense cut short his service as the DCI. He commissioned reports—known as the "Family Jewels"—on illegal activities by the Agency.

William Colby 1973–1976

Colby was another intelligence professional who was promoted to the top job. His autobiography was entitled "Honorable Men", and he believed that a nation had to believe such people made up its intelligence service.[6] In December 1974, Investigative journalist Seymour Hersh broke the news of the "Family Jewels" in a front-page article in The New York Times, revealing that the CIA had assassinated foreign leaders, and had conducted surveillance on some seven thousand American citizens involved in the antiwar movement (Operation CHAOS).

Congress responded to the "Family Jewels" in 1975, investigating the CIA in the Senate via the Church Committee, chaired by Senator Frank Church (D-Idaho), and in the House of Representatives via the Pike Committee, chaired by Congressman Otis Pike (D-NY). President Gerald Ford created the aforementioned Rockefeller Commission, and issued an Executive Order prohibiting the assassination of foreign leaders.

Colby's tenure as DCI congressional investigations into alleged U.S. intelligence malfeasance over the preceding twenty-five years. Colby cooperated, not out of a desire for major reforms, but in the belief that the actual scope of such misdeeds was not great enough to cause lasting damage to the CIA's reputation. He believed that cooperating with Congress was the only way to save the Agency from dissolution. Colby also believed that the CIA had a moral obligation to cooperate with the Congress and demonstrate that the CIA was accountable to the Constitution. This caused a major rift within the CIA ranks, with many old-line officers such as former DCI Richard Helms believing that the CIA should have resisted congressional intrusion.

Colby's time as DCI was also eventful on the world stage. Shortly after he assumed leadership, the Yom Kippur War broke out, an event that surprised not only the American intelligence agencies but also the Israelis. This intelligence surprise reportedly affected Colby's credibility with the Nixon Administration. Meanwhile, after many years of involvement, South Vietnam fell to Communist forces in April 1975, a particularly difficult blow for Colby, who had dedicated so much of his life and career to the American effort there. Events in the arms control field, Angola, the Middle East, and elsewhere also demanded attention.

William Colby's death, officially in a boating accident, happened on the same date when a New York prosecutor got permission to set up a grand jury to investigate the role of the CIA in the death of Frank Olson who worked at Fort Detrick, Maryland and was involved in chemical warfare research. Frank Olson was one of the experimental subjects in the CIA MKULTRA experiments with LSD and other drugs. He did not give informed consent for the CIA to experiment on him, as would be ethically required under the medical research principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. The CIA claimed that he committed suicide by jumping out of a hotel window but the family did not believe this explanation. An autopsy of the remains of Frank Olson had found blunt force trauma to the head, which might have come from the fall, or been inflicted before the fall. The 1953 medical report done immediately after Dr. Olson’s death indicated that there were cuts and abrasions on the body. In the summer of 1994,a second autopsy was performed by James Starrs, Professor of Law and Forensic science at the National Law Center at George Washington University, his team searched the body for any cuts and abrasions and didn’t find any. Professor Starrs found a large hematoma on the left side of Dr. Olson's head and a large injury on his chest. The team concluded that the injury on his head and chest did not happen during the fall. They most likely happened in the room before falling out of the window.

George H. W. Bush 1976–1977

Bush's confirmation as the Director of Central Intelligence was opposed by many politicians and citizens who were still reeling from the Watergate scandal (when Bush was the head of the Republican National Committee, and a steadfast defender of Nixon) and the Church Committee investigating whether CIA-ordered foreign assassinations were being directed towards domestic officials, including President Kennedy. Many arguments against Bush's initial confirmation were that he was too partisan for the office. The Washington Post, George Will, and Senator Frank Church were some notable figures opposed to Bush's nomination. After a pledge by Bush not to run for either President or Vice-President in 1976, opposition to his nomination died down.

Bush served as the DCI for 355 days, from January 30, 1976, to January 20, 1977.[7] The CIA had been rocked by a series of revelations, including disclosures based on investigations by the Senate's Church Committee, about the CIA's illegal and unauthorized activities, and Bush was credited with helping to restore the agency's morale.[8] On February 18, 1976, President Ford issued Executive Order 11905, which established policy guidelines and restrictions for individual intelligence agencies, and clarified intelligence authorities and responsibilities. Bush was given 90 days to implement the new order, which called for a major reorganization of the American Intelligence Community and firmly stated that intelligence activities could not be directed against American citizens.[9] In his capacity as DCI, Bush gave national security briefings to Jimmy Carter both as a presidential candidate and as President-elect, and discussed the possibility of remaining in that position in a Carter administration.[10]

Stansfield Turner 1977–1981

A U.S. Naval Academy classmate of Jimmy Carter's, Turner enjoyed the confidence of the White House, but his emphasis on technical methods of intelligence collection, such as SIGINT and IMINT, and his apparent dislike for, and firing of, HUMINT specialists made him quite unpopular within the CIA. Turner eliminated more than 800 operational positions in what was called the "halloween massacre." This organizational direction is notable because his successor William Casey was seen to have a completely opposite approach, focusing much of his attention on HUMINT. Turner gave notable testimony to Congress revealing much of the extent of the MKULTRA program, which the CIA ran from the early 1950s to late 1960s. Reform and simplification of the intelligence community's multilayered secrecy system was one of Turner's significant initiatives, but produced no results by the time he left office. He also wrote a book on his experience at CIA.[11]

During Turner's term as head of the CIA, he became outraged when former agent Frank Snepp published a book called Decent Interval which exposed incompetence among senior American government personnel during the fall of Saigon.[12] accused Snepp of breaking the secrecy agreement required of all CIA agents, and then later was forced to admit under cross-examination that he had never read the agreement signed by Snepp.[13] Regardless, the CIA ultimately won its case against Snepp at the U.S. Supreme Court. The Court forced Snepp to turn over all his profits from Decent Interval and to seek preclearance of any future writings about intelligence work for the rest of his life.[14] The ultimate irony was that the CIA would later rely on the Snepp legal precedent in forcing Turner to seek preclearance of his own memoirs, which were highly critical of President Ronald Reagan's policies.[13]

In the documentary Secrets of the CIA Admiral Turner commented the MK ULTRA project.

"It came to my attention early in my tenure as director, and I felt it was a warning sign that if you're not alert, things can go wrong in this organization."

William J. Casey 1981–1987

During his tenure at the CIA, Casey played a large part in the shaping of Reagan's foreign policy, particularly its approach to Soviet international activity. Based on a book, The Terror Network, Casey believed that the Soviet Union was the source of most terrorist activity in the world, in spite of CIA analysts providing evidence that this was in fact black propaganda by the CIA itself. Casey obtained a report from a professor that agreed with his view, which convinced Ronald Reagan that there was a threat.[15]

Casey oversaw the re-expansion of the Intelligence Community, in particular the CIA, to funding and human resource levels greater than those before resource cuts during the Carter Administration. During his tenure restrictions were lifted on the use of the CIA to directly, covertly influence the internal and foreign affairs of countries relevant to American policy.

This period of the Cold War saw an increase of the Agency's anti-Soviet activities around the world. Notably he oversaw covert assistance to the mujahadeen resistance in Afghanistan, with a budget of over $1 billion, working closely with Akhtar Abdur Rahman (the Director General of Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence directorate). The agency aided Solidarity movement in Poland, and a number of coups and attempted coups in South- and Central America.[citation needed]

Casey was also the principal architect of the arms-for-hostages deal that became known as the Iran-Contra affair.[citation needed]

Hours before Casey was scheduled to testify before Congress about his knowledge of Iran-Contra, he was reported to have been rendered incapable of speech, and was later hospitalized. In his 1987 book,[16] Washington Post reporter Bob Woodward, who had interviewed Casey on numerous occasions, said that he had gained entry to Casey's hospital room for a final, four-minute long encounter—a claim that was met with disbelief in many quarters, and adamant denial by Casey's wife, Sofia. According to Woodward, when he asked Casey if he knew about the diversion of funds to the Nicaraguan Contras, "His head jerked up hard. He stared, and finally nodded yes."[17]

William H. Webster 1987–1991

Webster came from a legal background, including serving as a Federal judge and as the Director of the FBI. He was expected, with this background, to clear out all legal irregularities at CIA. Repercussions from the Iran-Contra arms smuggling scandal included the creation of the Intelligence Authorization Act in 1991.[16] It defined covert operations as secret missions in geopolitical areas where the United States is neither openly nor apparently engaged. This also required an authorizing chain of command, including an official, Presidential finding report, and the informing of the House and Senate Intelligence Committees, which, in emergencies, requires only "timely notification".

Robert M. Gates 1991–1993

Gates was nominated (for the second time) for the post of Director of Central Intelligence by President George H. W. Bush on May 14, 1991, confirmed by the United States Senate on November 5, and sworn in on November 6, becoming the only career officer in the CIA's history (as of 2009) to rise from an entry-level CIA employee to the Director of the CIA.[18]

The final report of the Independent Counsel for Iran/Contra Matters, issued on August 4, 1993, said that Gates "was close to many figures who played significant roles in the Iran/contra affair and was in a position to have known of their activities. The evidence developed by Independent Counsel did not warrant indictment..."[19]

R. James Woolsey 1993–1995

As the Director of Central Intelligence, Woolsey is notable for having a very limited relationship with President Bill Clinton. According to the journalist Richard Miniter:

Never once in his two-year tenure did CIA director James Woolsey ever have a one-on-one meeting with Clinton. Even semiprivate meetings were rare. They only happened twice. Woolsey told me: "It wasn't that I had a bad relationship with the President. It just didn't exist."[20]

Another quotation about his relationship with President Clinton, according to Paula Kaufman of Insight Magazine:

Remember the guy who in 1994 crashed his plane onto the White House lawn? That was me trying to get an appointment to see President Clinton.[21]

David Halberstam noted in his book War in a Time of Peace that Clinton chose Woolsey as the CIA director because the Clinton campaign had courted neo-conservatives leading up to the 1992 election, promising to be tougher on Taiwan, Bosnia, and on human rights in China, and it was decided that they ought to give at least one neo-conservative a job in the Administration.

John M. Deutch 1995–1996

In 1995, President Bill Clinton appointed Deutch as the Director of Central Intelligence (cabinet rank in the Clinton administration). However, Deutch was initially reluctant to accept this appointment. As the head of the CIA, Deutch continued the policy of his predecessor R. James Woolsey to declassify records pertaining to American covert operations during the Cold War.[22] Deutsch put restraints on what he considered to be politically incorrect agent recruitment and sought to encourage more diversity at the CIA in order to include more women and minorities in its ranks.[23]

In 1996, the U.S. House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence issued a Congressional report estimating that: "Hundreds of employees on a daily basis are directed to break extremely serious laws in countries around the world in the face of frequently sophisticated efforts by foreign governments to catch them. A safe estimate is that several hundred times every day (easily 100,000 times a year) DO officers engage in highly illegal activities (according to foreign law) that not only risk political embarrassment to the U.S. but also endanger the freedom if not lives of the participating foreign nationals and, more than occasionally, of the clandestine officer himself."[24][25]

In this same document, the committee wrote, "Considering these facts and recent history, which has shown that the [Director of the Central Intelligence Agency], whether he wants to or not, is held accountable for overseeing the [Clandestine Service], the DCI must work closely with the Director of the CS and hold him fully and directly responsible to him."[25]

Soon after Deutch's departure from the CIA in 1996 it was revealed that classified materials had been kept on several of Deutch's laptop computers designated as unclassified. In January 1997, the CIA began a formal security investigation of the matter. Senior management members at the CIA declined to fully pursue the security breach. More than two years after his departure, the matter was referred to the Department of Justice, where Attorney General Janet Reno declined to prosecute. She did, however, recommend an investigation to determine whether Deutch should retain his security clearance.[26] President Clinton issued a Presidential pardon on his last day in office.[27]

George J. Tenet 1997–2004

Tenet was appointed the Deputy Director of Central Intelligence in July 1995. After John Deutch's abrupt resignation in December 1996, Tenet served as acting director until he was officially appointed the position on July 11, 1997, after a unanimous confirmation vote in the Senate. This had been followed by the withdrawal of Anthony Lake, whose nomination had been blocked by Republicans in Senate. While the Director of Central Intelligence has typically been replaced by an incoming Administration ever since President Jimmy Carter replaced DCI George H. W. Bush, Tenet served past the end of the Clinton Administration and through the first term of George W. Bush.

Tenet embarked on a mission to regenerate the CIA, which had fallen on hard times since the end of the Cold War. The number of new trainee agents recruited each year had fallen to an all-time low, a 25-percent decline from the Cold War peak. Tenet appealed to the original mission of the agency, which had been to "prevent another Pearl Harbor". The problem was to foresee where danger might come from in the post–Cold War world. Tenet focused on potential problems such as "the transformation of Russia and China", "rogue states" like North Korea, Iran, and Iraq, and terrorism.[28]

In 1999, Tenet put forward a grand "Plan" for dealing with the al-Qaeda organization. This effort supposedly put the CIA in a better position to respond after the September 11, 2001, attacks. As Tenet expressed it in his book,[29]

How could [an intelligence] community without a strategic plan tell the President of the United States just four days after 9/11 how to attack the Afghan sanctuary and operate against al-Qaeda in ninety-two countries around the world?

On September 15, 2001. Tenet presented the Worldwide Attack Matrix, a blueprint for what became known as the War On Terror.[30] He proposed firstly to send CIA teams into Afghanistan to collect intelligence on, and mount covert operations against, al-Qaeda and the Taliban. The teams would act jointly with military Special Operations units. "President Bush later praised this proposal, saying it had been a turning point in his thinking."[31]

After the September 11, 2001, attacks, many observers criticized the American Intelligence Community for numerous "intelligence failures" as one of the major reasons why the attacks were not prevented.[30] In August 2007, part of a secret report written by the CIA Inspector General was made public (originally written in 2005 but kept secret). Its 19-page summary states that Tenet knew the dangers of Al Qaeda well before September 2001, but that the leadership of the CIA did not do enough to prevent any attacks. Tenet reacted to the publication of this report by calling it "flat wrong".[32]

Bob Woodward, in his book Plan of Attack,[33] wrote that Tenet privately lent his personal authority to the intelligence reports about weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) in Iraq. At a meeting on December 12, 2002, he assured Bush that the evidence against Saddam Hussein amounted to a "slam dunk case." After several months of refusing to confirm this statement, Tenet later stated that this remark was taken out of context. (Tenet indicated that the comment was made pursuant to a discussion about how to convince the American people to support invading Iraq, and that, in his opinion, the best way to convince the people would be by explaining the dangers posed by Iraq's WMD i.e., the public relations sale of the war via the WMD, according to Tenet, would be a "slam dunk").[34] The search following the 2003 invasion of Iraq by American, British, and other international forces yielded no stockpiles of WMDs in Iraq. Tenet and his Director of Operations resigned at about this same time, and it has been suggested these resignations were in penance over the WMD issue in Iraq.

Porter J. Goss 2004–2005

During his junior year at Yale, Porter Goss was recruited by the CIA. He spent much of the 1960s—roughly from 1960 until 1971—working for the Directorate of Operations, the clandestine services of the CIA. There he first worked in Latin America and the Caribbean and later in Europe. The full details are not known due to the classified nature of the CIA, but Goss has said that he had worked in Haiti, Santo Domingo, and Mexico. Goss, who has said that he has recruited and trained foreign agents, worked in Miami for much of the time. Goss was involved in the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962, telling The Washington Post in 2002 that he had done some "small-boat handling" and had "some very interesting moments in the Florida Straits."

He served in Congress for 16 years until his appointment as Director of the CIA. While in the House, Goss consistently and emphatically defended the CIA and supported strong budget increases for the Agency, even during a time of tight budgets and Clintonian slashes to other parts of the intelligence budgets. In mid-2004, Goss took a very strong position, during what had already been announced as his last congressional term, urging specific reforms and corrections in the way the CIA carried out its activities, lest it become "just another government bureaucracy."

After growing pressure, Congress established the Joint Inquiry into Intelligence Community Activities before and after the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001, a joint inquiry of the two intelligence committees, led by Goss and Senator Bob Graham. Goss and Graham made it clear that their goal was not to identify specific wrongdoing: Graham said the inquiry would not play "the blame game about what went wrong from an intelligence perspective,", and Goss said, "This is not a who-shall-we-hang type of investigation. It is about where are the gaps in America's defense and what do we do about it type of investigation."[35] The inquiry's final report was released in December 2002 and focused entirely on the CIA and FBI's activities, including no information on the White House's activities. Ray McGovern, a 27-year veteran of the CIA and a frequent commentator on intelligence issues, believed the report showed that Goss gave "clear priority to providing political protection for the president" when conducting the inquiry. Goss chiefly blamed President Bill Clinton for the recent CIA failures. He confided in a reporter: "The one thing I lose sleep about is thinking what could I have done better, how could I have gotten more attention on this problem sooner." When asked whether he ever brought up his concerns with the administration, Goss claimed he had met three times with Clinton to discuss "certain problems". The upshot? "He was patient and we had an interesting conversation but it was quite clear he didn’t value the intelligence community to the degree President Bush does."

Goss was nominated to become the new director on August 10, 2004. The appointment was challenged by some prominent Democrats). Sen. John D. Rockefeller IV (D-WV), vice chairman of the Senate Intelligence Committee, expressed concerns that Goss was too politically partisan, given his public remarks against Democrats while serving as chairman of the House Intelligence Committee. Another Democratic member of the committee, Ron Wyden (D-OR), expressed concerns that given Goss's history within and ties to the CIA, he would be too disinclined to push for institutional change. In an interview carried out by Michael Moore's production company on March 3, 2004, Goss described himself as "probably not qualified" for a job within the CIA, because the language skills the Agency now seeks are not languages he speaks and because the people applying today for positions within the CIA's four directorates have such keen technical and analytic skills, which he did not have when he applied to the Agency in the early 60s.

He brought with him five personal staff that were to implement change that became unpopular with CIA professionals. Steve Kappes—the Director of Operations—and his subordinates including Michael Sulick, Kappes' then-deputy. Although Kappes came back to a responsible position, it has been reported that he quit the Agency rather than carry out a request by Goss to reassign Michael Sulick. Following Goss's departure, both Kappes and Sulick have returned to positions of higher authority in the U.S. Intelligence Community. Kappes is the Deputy Director of the CIA and Sulick was appointed Director of the National Clandestine Service on September 14, 2007.

Speculations on the reason for his departure include a desire to have military agency heads, or, perhaps more likely,

For many analysts, Goss' departure was inevitable, given the widespread perception that the White House had lost confidence in his ability to reorganise the CIA. Goss' departure appears to have been due, at least in part, to his repeated clashes with John Negroponte who was appointed in 2005 as the US Director of National Intelligence, a new post created to co-ordinate all 16 of the US intelligence agencies in the aftermath of the Al-Qaeda attacks.[36]

A claim that the black sites existed was made by The Washington Post in November 2005 and before by human rights NGOs.[37] US President George W. Bush acknowledged the existence of secret prisons operated by the CIA during a speech on September 6, 2006.[38][39]

Michael Hayden 2006–2009

Michael Hayden became the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, as distinct from the Director of Central Intelligence. The responsibility for the overall coordination intelligence community since 2006 rests with the Director of National Intelligence, currently James R. Clapper. The DCI position has been abolished.

On June 27, 2007, the CIA published two collections of previously classified documents that outlined various activities of doubtful legality.

The first collection, the "Family Jewels", consists of almost 700 pages of responses from CIA employees to a directive in 1973 from the Director of Central Intelligence, James Schlesinger, requesting information about activities inconsistent with the Agency's charter.

The second collection, the so-called "CAESAR-POLO-ESAU papers", consists of 147 documents and 11,000 pages of research from 1953 to 1973 concerning the Soviet Union's and Chinese leadership hierarchies, and Sino-Soviet relations.[40]

Leon Panetta 2009–present

On January 5, 2009, President Barack Obama nominated Leon Panetta for the position of the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. After his nomination, journalists, politicians, and media agencies—such as The Economist—raised concerns about his lack of intelligence agency experience.[41] Time magazine commented that "[m]ore than a few eyebrows went up when word broke".[42]

The Economist also speculated that Obama had selected Panetta because he needed a CIA director "untainted" by the Bush Administration's policies on torture and its handling of the Iraq War.[42] David Ignatius said that advisers to Mr. Obama have told him that Panetta was chosen to provide political defense for the CIA: "Panetta is a Washington heavyweight with the political clout to protect the Agency and help it rebuild after a traumatic eight years under George Bush, when it became a kind of national pincushion." Ignatius further explains that Panetta does have tangential exposure to intelligence operations as director of the OMB and as the Chief of Staff for President Clinton, where he "sat in on the daily intelligence briefings as [the] Chief of Staff, and he reviewed the nation's most secret intelligence-collection and covert-action programs in his previous post as director of the Office of Management and Budget." Mr. Panetta also served on the Iraq Study group.[citation needed]

The former Director of Central Intelligence, R. James Woolsey, Jr., is a supporter of Mr. Panetta, whom he has compared favorably with the Kennedy-era CIA leader John McCone. He described Panetta as "a very able individual with a successful career".[41]


CIA Scandles

1947 Jul 26 President Truman signed the National Security Act, creating the Department of Defense, the National Security Council, the Central Intelligence Agency, CIA, FBI, and the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The act forbade the CIA from operating within the US. The CIA was transformed from the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), founded by Gen. William Donovan (1941), and was led by Adm. Walter Chilcott Ford (d.1999 at 96) until 1949.
Frank Wisner was recruited by Dean Acheson to join the US State Department's Office of Occupied Territories. In 1948, the CIA created a covert action wing, innocuously called the Office of Policy Coordination (OPC). Frank Wisner was put in charge of the operation and recruited many of his old friends from the NYC Carter Ledyard law firm. Wisner later coined the term “mighty Wurlitzer” to describe the orchestration of the agency’s activities.
2010 Bob Woodward authored “Obama’s Wars.” In it he alleged that some 3,000 CIA operatives are active in the tribal regions of Pakistan.
2011 Jan 23
In Pakistan Sultan Amir Tarar, a former Pakistani spy who helped the Taliban rise to power in Afghanistan, was reported to have died under captivity 10 months after he was seized in northwest Pakistan. Tarar, better known as Col. Imam, played a major role in funneling Pakistani support and training to Afghans fighting Soviet rule in the 1980s, a push in large part financed by the CIA. On Feb 19 the Pakistani Taliban claimed it had killed Tarar.
2011 Feb 14
Iran’s security forces cut phone lines and blockaded the home of an Iranian opposition leader in attempts to stop him attending a planned rally in support of Egypt's uprising. Eyewitnesses reported sporadic clashes in central Tehran's Enghelab or Revolution square between security forces and opposition protesters. Turkish President Abdullah Gul, who is on a visit to Iran, urged governments in the Middle East to listen to the demands of their people. Student Sanee Zhaleh (26) was shot dead during the opposition rally. Authorities later announced the arrest today of an Iranian man allegedly working for the CIA.
2011 Mar 16
Pakistan freed CIA contractor Raymond Allen Davis, who had shot and killed two Pakistani men, after the US paid $2.34 million in "blood money" to the victims' families. Davis, who was acquitted in court, claimed he acted in self-defense when he killed the two men on the street in the eastern city of Lahore.
2011 Mar 30
US officials revealed that the CIA has sent small teams of operatives into rebel-held eastern Libya while the White House debates whether to arm the opposition. The British government said Libyan Foreign Minister Moussa Koussa had arrived in Britain from Tunisia and resigned.

The National Council for a Free Europe was set up, seemingly the initiative of American philanthropists, to help refugees. It was later revealed to be a CIA front group.
A CIA assessment of Japanese agents said: "Frequently they resorted to padding or outright fabrication of information for the purposes of prestige or profit." Among the agents was Col. Masanobu Tsuji, a fanatical Japanese militarist and brutal warrior, hunted after World War II for massacres of Chinese civilians and complicity in the Bataan Death March. Other agents in US-funded operations included mob boss and war profiteer Yoshio Kodama, and Takushiro Hattori, former private secretary to Hideki Tojo. Documents with this information were declassified in 2005 and 2006.
1952 Nov 29
A plane carrying CIA paramilitary officers on their first overseas assignment, John T. Downey (22) of New Britain, Conn., and Richard G. Fecteau (25), of Lynn, Mass., was shot down over Jilin province. Pilots, Robert C. Snoddy (31), a native of Roseburg, Ore., and Norman A. Schwartz (29) of Louisville, Ky., did not survive. Downey and Fecteau were captured. They had been assigned to a covert program called "Third Force," intended to create a resistance network. Fecteau was released by China in December 1971 and Downey in March 1973, shortly after President Richard Nixon publicly acknowledged Downey's CIA connection.
1953 Aug 15 In Iran a CIA plot, masterminded by Kermit Roosevelt, to unseat PM Mossadeq failed. A 2nd attempt succeeded on August 19.
1953 Aug 19 Gen'l. Zahedi ousted PM Mossadegh and became the Premier of Iran in a bloody coup that left 300 dead. Britain and the US CIA under Allen Dulles planned a secret mission to overthrow the government. PM Mossadeq had sought to nationalize the Anglo-Persian Oil Co. The US government made a formal apology for the coup in 2000. A 1954 CIA description of the coup was made public in 2000. In 1979 Kermit Roosevelt (d.2000) published “Countercoup: The Struggle for the Control of Iran,” an account of his role in the coup. In 2010 Darioush Bayandor authored “Iran and the CIA: The Fall of Mossadeq Revisited.”
1954 Mar
A history of the CIA sponsored 1953 coup in Iran was written by Donald N. Wilbur (1908-1997), an expert in Persian architecture and one of the "leading planners" of the operation "TP-Ajax."
Winston Scott (1909-1971) was appointed as the American CIA station chief in Mexico.
The first team of 6 Tibetans trained at a Saipan US CIA base and then airdropped back into Tibet with modern weapons and radios.
1958 The US CIA began airdropping weapons over Tibet.
1958 A secret war in Indonesia ended abruptly when Allen Pope, a CIA contract pilot, was downed in a dogfight. Pope was carrying a trove of documents that revealed the extent of US involvement. The CIA had been sending weapons and advisers to anti-government rebels on Indonesia’s Sulawesi island as mercenaries mounted combat sorties in a fleet of unmarked B-26 bombers. Indonesia later received a batch of 10 C-130 transport planes from the US in exchange for Pope’s release.
1960 Aug The CIA recruited a former FBI agent to approach two of America's most-wanted mobsters and gave them poison pills meant for Fidel Castro during his first year in power. This was only made public in 2007 in declassified papers. The CIA recruited ex-FBI agent Robert Maheu, then a top aide to Howard Hughes in Las Vegas, to approach mobster Johnny Roselli and pass himself off as the representative of international corporations that wanted Castro killed because of their lost gambling operations.
The US CIA launched a secret domestic spying program dubbed MHCHAOS aimed at the US anti-war underground press. The events were later described in the 1997 book by Angus McKenzie (d.1997): "Secrets: The CIA’s War at Home."
1961 Jan 17
Patrice Lumumba (34), the 1st premier Congo, was murdered after 67 days in office.
1961 Apr 17
About 1,500 CIA-trained Cuban exiles, Brigade 2506, launched the disastrous Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba in a failed attempt to overthrow the government of Fidel Castro. The US clandestinely invaded Cuba in the Bay of Pigs operation and the operation failed completely without any of the promised air support from the United States. Cuban forces killed 200 rebels and captured 1,197 in less than 72 hours. The command vessel Marsopa and supply ship Houston were sunk and an entire battalion was lost. 26 survivors were rescued after 3 days of fighting. A single copy of a CIA report written by inspector general Lyman Kirkpatrick was made public in 1998. The operation, which had been devised during the Eisenhower Administration, was nonetheless endorsed by the new president, John F. Kennedy. In 1979 Peter Wyden wrote “Bay of Pigs: The Untold Story.” Portion of the 1961 Taylor Report was made public in 1977 and 1986. Most of the report was made public in 2000 and it showed that the CIA knew that the Soviets knew the exact date of the attack. In 2009 Guadeloupe apologized to Cuba for allowing the CIA to train Cuban exiles on its soil.
1961 Apr 19
Cuban forces shot down a B-26 bomber piloted by Captain Thomas Ray north of Larga beach, an area they controlled. Ray was flying the bomber from Nicaragua while on contract to the US CIA. In a 2004 trial in the US, forensics on Ray’s body proved that the cause of his death was a small bullet entry thru the head.
George Joannides, a CIA agent, was in charge of the Revolutionary Students Directorate (DRE), one of the most powerful Cuban anti-Castro organizations in Miami. A few months before the assassination of JFK the DRE had significant contacts with Lee Harvey Oswald and Oswald tried to infiltrate the New Orleans branch of the DRE.
1963 Winston Scott served as American CIA station chief in Mexico during the time that Lee Harvey Oswald visited the Cuban Embassy there. In 2008 Jefferson Morley authored “Our Man in Mexico: Winston Scott and the Hidden History of the CIA.” Morley proposed that Scott later covered up CIA operations that involved Oswald.
1964 Jan 16
Pres. Johnson approved OPLAN 34A-64, calling for stepped up infiltration and covert operations against North Vietnam to be transferred from the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to the military."
1964 Feb
Yuri Nosenko (1927-2008), Soviet KGB officer, defected under CIA guidance in Geneva. He had begun passing information in June, 1962. He was incarcerated for his first 3 years in the US and settled there under a new name in 1969.
1964 Nov
The US HONETOL committee was formed to look into the question of a mole in the CIA, based on information from Soviet defector Anatoly Golitsin. It was in existence to April 1965, and consisted of James Jesus Angleton, Newton S. Miler and Bruce Solie from the CIA's Office of Security, FBI domestic intelligence chief William C. Sullivan, FBI CIA liaison Sam Papich and two others. The investigations damaged many careers including that of case officer Richard Kovich (1926-2006). In 1992 David Wise authored “Molehunt: The Secret Search for Traitors that Shattered the CIA.”
1965 Nov 24
Congo had a military coup under Gen. Mobutu and Pres. Kasavubu was overthrown. Larry Devlin, US CIA station chief, had encouraged Mobutu to launch the coup. In 2007 Devlin authored “Chief of Station, Congo: Fighting the Cold War in a Hot Zone.”
1967 Feb 14
Ramparts Magazine published an ad in the NY Times and Washington Post saying “In its March issue, Ramparts magazine will document how the CIA has infiltrated and subverted the world of American student leaders over the past fifteen years.”
Luis Posada Carriles, Cuban-born CIA agent since 1965, moved to Venezuela and rose to become head of a government counterintelligence security agency.
The A-12 Blackbird spy plane was retired. Lockheed Martin had built 15 such planes, a forerunner to the SR-71 Blackbird. It had originated as part of the CIA’s “Oxcart” program.
1969 Jan 29
Allan Welsh Dulles (b.1893), US diplomat, director (CIA 1953-61), died.
1969 Jul 16
Vu Ngoc Nha (d.2002), top aide to presidents Ngo Dinh Diem and Nguyen Van Thieu, was arrested in Saigon. The CIA uncovered him as the head of a Communist espionage ring. He and 2 others were convicted of treason and sentenced to life in prison.
A CIA report on Soviet activities in developing biological and chemical weapons was "removed" by order of Henry Kissinger, the National Security Advisor, presumably so it would not interfere with arms-control efforts.
1970 Oct 25
In Chile a US CIA-backed kidnapping attempt was botched and left Gen. Rene Schneider dead. Schneider had opposed a US plan for a military coup. In 2001 his widow and 3 sons filed a suit against Henry Kissinger, Richard Helms and several other former US bureaucrats.
US CIA funding for Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty was disclosed. In 2000 Arch Puddington, deputy director of RFE/RL’s new York bureau from 1985 to 1993, authored "Broadcasting Freedom." The Munich headquarters were closed in 1994 and the organization moved to an afterlife in Prague.
1972 Mar 23
Pres. Nixon discussed his orders to undermine Chilean democracy after the leak of corporate papers revealing collaboration between ITT and the CIA to rollback the election of socialist leader Salvador Allende.
1972 May 25
The final US CORONA reconnaissance satellite was launched.
1972 Jun 23
President Nixon and White House chief of staff H.R. Haldeman discussed a plan to use the CIA to obstruct the FBI's Watergate investigation. Revelation of the tape recording of this conversation sparked Nixon's resignation in 1974. In the "smoking gun" tape Pres. Nixon told his chief of Staff, H.R. Haldeman, to tell top CIA officials that "the president believes this (in reference to Watergate) is going to open the whole Bay of Pigs thing up again." Nixon counseled Haldeman on how to use deception to thwart an FBI investigation on how Watergate was financed.
1973 May
CIA director James R. Schlesinger (b.1929), in response to the unfolding Watergate scandal, ordered employees to report activities which might be construed to be outside the legislative charter of the agency.
1973 Jul 2
CIA director James R. Schlesinger (b.1929), nominated on May 10 by Pres. Nixon, became the 12th US Sec. of Defense.
1973 Jul 13
In Chile a strike began that lasted until the September 11 coup. More than a million workers were on strike demanding that Allende go. American CIA funding was involved.
1973 Sep 4
William E Colby (1920-1996), became the 10th director of the CIA.
1973 Sep 21
A secret CIA report indicated that severe repression was planned in Chile and that 300 students were killed in the technical university when they refused to surrender to the military. The report was made public in 1999.
1974 Aug
The CIA in Project Azorian recovered part of a Soviet submarine that had sunk in the Pacific on March 8, 1968. A 100 foot section of K-129 was pulled in by the Hughes Glomar Explorer with 2 nuclear tipped torpedoes and the bodies of 6 Russian sailors. The US Navy’s fully submersible dry dock, called the Hughes Mining Barge, was used under the Glomar Explorer to position a claw to recover the submarine. Claude Barnes Capehart worked on the Howard Hughes’ deep-sea research vessel, Glomar Explorer, that under CIA sponsorship raised part of the Soviet submarine. Later in Chowchilla, Ca., he told his girlfriend that he was in Texas when Kennedy was assassinated, and that "Oswald wasn’t the only one involved." Just before a scheduled interview in 1989, Capehart dropped dead of a heart attack. In 1996 the Glomar Explorer began under going remodeling for work as a deep-sea drilling ship. The barge was later used to house the Navy’s $195 million Sea Shadow, an experimental stealth ship made public in 1993. In 2006 the barge and Sea Shadow were put to rest in Suisun Bay, near San Francisco.
Columnist Jack Anderson blew the cover of CIA agent James Lilley, attached to the US representative office in Beijing. In 2004 James and Jeffrey Lilley authored “China Hands: Nine Decades of Adventure, Espionage and Diplomacy in Asia.”
1975 Jan 4
Pres. Ford’s signed Executive Order No. 11828 on CIA Activities within the US. He directed the Commission, chaired by VP Nelson A. Rockefeller, to determine whether or not any domestic CIA activities exceeded the Agency's statutory authority and to make appropriate recommendations.
1975 Jan 27
The US Senate voted to establish a special 11-member investigating body to examine FBI and CIA activities. Under the chairmanship of Idaho Senator Frank Church, with Texas Senator John Tower as vice-chairman, the select committee was given nine months and 150 staffers to complete its work. On November 20 the committee released a report, charging both US government agencies with illegal activities.
1975 Jun 2
Vice President Nelson Rockefeller said his commission had found no widespread pattern of illegal activities at the Central Intelligence Agency.
1975 Jun 10
The Rockefeller panel reported on illegal CIA files on Americans.
1975 Nov 20
An interim report by the US Senate’s Church Committee said that the CIA failed to assassinated Fidel Castro at least 8 times. The report also covered CIA activity in Chile, the Congo, the Dominican Republic and elsewhere.
1975 Dec 23
Richard S. Welch, the Central Intelligence Agency station chief in Athens, was shot and killed outside his home. The left-wing November 17 urban guerrilla group was responsible. In 2002 Pavlos Serifis was arrested in connection with the murder.
Philip Agee, former CIA agent, authored "Inside the Company."
1976 Jan 30
George Bush became the 11th director of the CIA replacing William E. Colby. Bush revived the reputation of the organization and left it Jan 20, 1977.
1976 May 19
The US Senate established congressional oversight over the CIA with the permanent Select Committee on Intelligence (SSCI).
1976 Aug 9
John Roselli (b.1905), Chicago mobster hired by the CIA to kill Castro, was found murdered. His decomposing body was found in a 55-gallon steel fuel drum floating in Dumfounding Bay near Miami, Florida. Roselli had been strangled and stabbed and his legs were sawed off.
1976 Oct 6
A Cuban aircraft from Venezuela with 73 people onboard was blown up on a flight over the Caribbean. Castro blamed the explosion on the US. Luis Posada Carriles, a veteran of the Cuban exile’s war against Castro, was charged and twice acquitted in the bombing. Venezuelan authorities kept him in jail for 9 years until his escape in 1985 when he settled in El Salvador. In April, 2005, Posada sought asylum in the US. In May, 2005, declassified documents were made public that linked Posada to the bombing and indicated he was on the CIA's payroll for years.
A US congressional commission found that Pres. Nixon had authorized $10 million for a covert CIA mission to get rid of Allende in Chile. Papers to this effect were declassified in 1998.
David H. Barnett, former CIA agent, pleaded guilty in 1980 to spying for the Soviet Union over this time while based in Indonesia. He admitted to exposing the identities of 30 US agents.
1977 Jan 20
George Bush left office as director of the CIA.
1977 Mar 9
Admiral Stansfield Turner took office as head of the CIA under Pres. Carter.
1977 May
Larry Ellison and Robert Miner founded Oracle Corp. in Belmont, Ca., after they persuaded the CIA to let them pick up a lapsed contract for a special database program.
1977 Nov 4
Former CIA director Richard Helms was sentenced for withholding information on CIA operations in Chile.
Christopher Boyce was convicted of espionage. He had gained access to CIA communications during his job at TRW and sold classified documents to the Russian Embassy in Mexico City. His story was told in the 1985 film "The Falcon and the Snowman." Boyce was paroled in 2003.
Adm. Stansfield Turner served as the director of the CIA under President Jimmy Carter.
1978 Jan 7
Michael Josselson (b.1908), Estonia-born director of the Congress for Cultural Freedom, died. The organization was a CIA front to gain the support of the non-Communist left for the US. In 2000 Frances Stonor Saunders authored "The Cultural Cold War: The CIA and the World of Arts and Letters."
1978 Aug 18
Bechtel Corp. hired Richard Helms, former director of the CIA, as a consultant. Former government officials George Shultz and Caspar Weinberger were also recently hired.
1980 Apr 23
Albert Hakim, a wealthy arms merchant, unexpectedly skipped town the day before a US rescue mission. The Iranian exile and CIA informant worked for the CIA near the Turkish boarder handling the logistics of the rescue mission in Tehran. Hakim had purchased trucks and vans and rented a warehouse on the edge of Tehran to hide them in until they were needed for the operation. In July, 1981, Hakim approached the CIA with a plan to gain favor with the Iranian government by selling it arms.
1980 Oct 24
David H. Barnett, former CIA agent, was indicted. He pleaded guilty to spying for the Soviet Union from 1976-1979 while based in Indonesia. He admitted to exposing the identities of 30 US agents.
1981 Jan 28
William J. Casey (1913-1987) became the 13th director of CIA replacing Adm. Stansfield Turner.
1981 Mar 7
Anti-government guerrillas in Colombia executed kidnapped American Bible translator Chester Allen Bitterman, whom they accused of being a CIA agent.
1981 Sep
The CIA was informed that a major Contra rebel group planned to sell drugs in the US to pay its bills. At the same time the Reagan administration was approving a covert CIA program to finance anti-Sandinista exile organization attempts to overthrow the Nicaraguan government.
1981 Dec 4
President Reagan broadened the power of the CIA by allowing spying in the U.S. This was Executive Order on Intelligence No 12,333. The order also barred assassinations.
1981 Dec
In Nicaragua Contra commander Enrique Bermudez (d.1991), a CIA agent, ordered Meneses and Blandon to begin trafficking in support of the Contras. Oscar Danilo Blandon had been recruited by Norwin Meneses to sell cocaine in California in order to raise money for the Nicaraguan Contras.
Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) and the US CIA carried out massive covert operations against Soviet forces in Afghanistan.
Barry Seal (1939-1986), gunrunner, drug trafficker, and covert CIA operative, began his operations at the Intermountain Regional Airport in Mena, Arkansas. Seal was murdered by Colombian assassins in Feb, 1986, after he had testified in federal court in Las Vegas, Fort Lauderdale, and Miami for the US government against leaders of the Medellin drug cartel. According to a 1986 letter from the Louisiana attorney general to then US attorney general Edwin Meese, Seal had "smuggled between $3 billion and $5 billion of drugs into the US." Among the aircraft flown in and out of Mena was Seal's C-123K cargo plane, christened Fat Lady. Records show that Fat Lady, serial number 54-0679, was sold by Seal months before his death. On Oct 5, 1986, Fat Lady was shot down over Nicaragua with a load of arms destined for the Contras.
1982 Jun
"Farewell," a CIA campaign of computer sabotage, stayed secret because the blast, estimated at three kilotons, took place in the Siberian wilderness, with no casualties known. "The pipeline software that was to run the pumps, turbines and valves was programmed to go haywire," writes Reed, "to reset pump speeds and valve settings to produce pressures far beyond those acceptable to the pipeline joints and welds. The result was the most monumental non-nuclear explosion and fire ever seen from space." "At the Abyss," by Thomas C. Reed, was published by Random House in 2004.
1983 Jul 19
In Honduras Reyes Mata, a Cuban-trained doctor and guerrilla leader, led a unit of 96 Nicaraguan-trained rebels and Rev. James F. Carney into the Olancho. They were routed by the Honduran army. American CIA records, disclosed in 1998, reported that Mata was tortured and executed by the Honduran army.
The American CIA developed a manual to train security forces in Latin America. It was titled "Human Resource Exploitation Training Manual."
Edwin Wilson was convicted of running arms to Libya. In 2003 the conviction was thrown out because prosecutors knew he worked for the CIA and misled the court.
1984 Mar 16
William Buckley, the CIA station chief in Beirut, was kidnapped by gunmen; he died in captivity.
1984 May
Marta Healy, a Nicaraguan exile, contacted George Morales, a champion power boat racer and big-league drug trafficker under indictment in the US, to arrange a meeting with contra rebels at her Miami home. Her aim was to broker a deal to help the rebels financially. The rebels got an ok from the CIA to accept airplanes and cash from the drug dealer while still receiving CIA money under the table.
1984 Oct 15
The Central Intelligence Agency's Freedom of Information Act was signed into law by Pres. Reagan.
The CIA ran the Contra war in Nicaragua as a covert operation until this year when Congress cut off funds. The Reagan administration transferred the operation to Lt. Col. Oliver North, a member of the White House National Security staff.
The CIA equipped a plane belonging to Barry Seal, a drug smuggler and informant, with cameras. Seal flew the plane to Nicaragua and photographed an official of the Sandinista government and a leader of a Colombian drug cartel loading cocaine on the aircraft.
1985 Mar 8
In Lebanon a massive car bomb killed 80 people. It targeted Grand Ayatollah Sayyed Muhammad Hussein Fadlallah, but he escaped injury. Reporter Bob Woodward later wrote that CIA director William Casey, while lying on his deathbed, admitted personal culpability in the attack, which he suggests was carried out with funding from Saudi Arabia.
1985 Jun 13
Aldrich Ames handed over the names of 20 Soviets working for the CIA, to a Soviet agent, several of whom were later executed.
1985 Jun 19
In El Salvador 4 off-duty US Marines and 9 others were killed at sidewalk restaurants in the Zona Rosa section of San Salvador. Pedro Antonio Andrade Martinez (aka Mario Gonzalez), a Marxist guerrilla, was one of the reputed masterminds of the massacre. Andrade later became an informant for the CIA and sought US asylum. Andrade was deported from the US in 1997.
1985 Sep 6
Tscherim Soobzokov (b.1924), a former Waffen SS soldier, was killed by a bomb at his home in Patterson, NJ. In 2006, declassified documents of the Central Intelligence Agency confirmed that Soobzokov had been a CIA agent in Jordan and that the agency had misled the United States Immigration and Naturalization Service on Soobzokov's Nazi past.
1985 Sep
Edward Lee Howard, CIA officer, vanished from Santa Fe, NM. He fled the US to Russia while under FBI investigation for spying for the Soviet Union. He was accused of disclosing CIA agents in Moscow. Howard died in 2002 of a broken neck from an accident at his residence outside Moscow. In 1995 Howard’s memoir “Safe House” was ghost written by Richard Cote.
1985 Oct 7
The United States announced it would no longer automatically comply with World Court decisions. This was in response to a June 25, 1985, World Court ruling that U.S. involvement in Nicaragua violated international law. The ruling stemmed from a suit brought in April 1984 after revelations that the CIA had directed the mining of Nicaraguan ports. The U.S. later vetoed two U.N. resolutions calling for compliance to the World Court ruling.
1985 Nov 23
Retired CIA analyst Larry Wu-tai Chin was arrested and accused of spying for China. He committed suicide a year after his conviction.
Luis Posada Carriles, Cuban-born CIA agent (~1965-1976), escaped from prison in Venezuela.
Sen. John Kerry of Mass. went to Nicaragua to meet with the Sandinista leadership. Kerry worked hard against Pres. Reagan’s efforts to fund CIA aid for the contras.
American CIA clerk in Ghana Sharon Scranage pleaded guilty to disclosing the names of US agents to her Ghanaian boyfriend. She was prosecuted under a 1982 federal law called the Intelligence Identities Protection Act.
The American CIA rewrote its 1983 training manual for security forces after public uproar over another manual that taught Nicaraguan contra rebels about neutralizing enemies and holding demonstrations that could provoke violence.
Celerino Castillo III, a US agent for the DEA, reported Contra drug flights from Nicaragua to the US to US Embassy officials. His testimony in 1996 followed reports that the CIA was involved in smuggling drugs to southern California with the proceeds going to support Contra forces at war with the Sandinista government.
Aldrich H. Ames, a CIA counterintelligence official, passed information over this time to the Soviet Union that included the names of US agents. The deaths of at least 9 agents were blamed on his disclosures. In 1994 Ames and his wife, Rosario, pleaded guilty to spying for the Soviet Union.
1986 Feb 19
Barry Seal (b.1939), gunrunner, drug trafficker, and covert CIA operative extraordinaire, was murdered in a hail of bullets by Medellin cartel hit men outside a Salvation Army shelter in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. He had testified in federal court in Las Vegas, Fort Lauderdale, and Miami for the US government against leaders of the Medellin drug cartel.
1986 Jul 11
President Ronald Reagan placed the Contras, who were fighting the government of Nicaragua, under CIA jurisdiction.
1986 Oct 5
American Eugene Hasenfus was captured by Sandinista soldiers after the weapons plane he was flying in was shot down over southern Nicaragua. An airplane named Fat Lady was shot down over Nicaragua with a load of arms destined for the Contras. Documents found on board the aircraft and seized by the Sandinistas included logs linking the plane with Area 51, the nation's top-secret nuclear-weapons facility at the Nevada Test Site. The doomed aircraft was co-piloted by Wallace Blaine "Buzz" Sawyer, a native of western Arkansas, who died in the crash. The admissions of the surviving crew member, Eugene Hasenfus, began a public unraveling of the Iran-Contra episode.
1986 Nov 14
The White House acknowledged CIA role in secretly shipping weapons to Iran.
1986 Dec
Sergeant Clayton Lonetree informed his CIA station chief in Austria that he had been spying for the Soviets. he was later sentenced to 30 years, but the sentence was reduced and he was released in 2/96. "Dancing With The Devil, Sex, Espionage and the US Marines: The Clayton Lonetree Story" (1996) by Rodney Barker tells the tale.
Osama bin Laden began building a tunnel complex under mountains in Afghanistan near Pakistan as part of a CIA-funded project.
Larry Wu-Tai Chin, a retired CIA translator was convicted of spying for China since 1952. Within days of the conviction he killed himself.
1987 Feb 2
The White House announced the resignation of CIA director William Casey, who was hospitalized and had undergone brain surgery.
1987 Apr 15
A jury in Northampton, Mass., found Amy Carter, Abbie Hoffman and 13 other protesters innocent of charges stemming from a demonstration against CIA recruiters at the University of Massachusetts.
1987 May 6
William J. Casey, CIA Director (1981-1987), died at age 74.
1987 Jun 23
The Iran-Contra hearings resumed with testimony from former CIA employee Glenn A. Robinette, who said he'd installed a $14,000 security system at the home of Lt. Col. Oliver North, then helped make it appear that North had paid for the work.
1987 Jul 10
Lt. Col. Oliver North told the Iran-Contra committees that the late CIA director William J. Casey had embraced a fund created by arms sales to Iran because it could be used for secret operations other than supplying the Contras.
Gen Ramon Guillen Davila headed the CIA-financed Venezuelan National Guard antinarcotics group. During his tenure 1-2 tons of cocaine were smuggled into the US. He was indicted by a federal grand jury in Miami in 1996.
Gen. Ramon Guillen Davila headed the CIA-financed Venezuelan National Guard antinarcotics group. During his tenure 1-2 tons of cocaine were smuggled into the US. He was indicted by a federal grand jury in Miami in 1996.
1989 Oct
In El Salvador the CIA station in San Salvador began providing the Salvadoran security forces with money to the resettle Marxist guerilla turned informer, Pedro Antonio Andrade Martinez (aka Mario Gonzalez), in the US. He had been recently captured and became a highly paid informer for the Salvadoran armed forces. Information from Andrade later led to the capture, torture or disappearance of some 200 guerrillas. In 1996 he was arrested in the US for failure to renew his visa. In 1997 the Clinton administration sought to deport him.
1990 Oct 24
The existence of Gladio, a “stay-behind” espionage operation, was acknowledged by Giulio Andreotti, head of the Italian government. It was sponsored by the CIA and NATO to counter communist influence after World War II in Italy, as well as in other European countries.
1990 Nov 3
The Kryptos sculpture, created by sculptor Jim Sanborn, was dedicated in the courtyard of the CIA headquarters in Virginia.
US CIA and military strategist were sent to Colombia to enhance the efficiency effectiveness of the local military intelligence.
American innkeeper Michael Devine was murdered in Guatemala. Allegations have been made that Guatemalan colonel, Julio Roberto Alpirez on CIA payroll, was involved. A review in 1996 showed that Alpirez was on the CIA payroll from 1988-1992 and that he was involved in the cover-up of the murder of Devine and had participated in the interrogation and likely torture of Efraim Bamaca, a captured Guatemalan guerrilla married to an American lawyer.
1991 Jan 18
The US acknowledged that the CIA and US Army paid Panama’s military leader Manuel Noriega $322,226 from 1955-1986. Noriega began receiving money from the CIA in 1976.
1991 Mar 1
1991 Mar 7
US military specialists surveyed and then detonated a bunker at Kamisiyah, Iraq. The site had been declared a chemical weapons storage area by Iraq after the Gulf War. No trace of chemical agents were found before or after but US & UN inspections teams had earlier found nerve agent rockets and mustard gas shells in open pits at the site. It was later acknowledged by the Pentagon that more than 15,000 US troops may have been exposed to nerve gas due to the detonations. Defense Department logs of this period were later reported lost. In April 1997 the CIA acknowledged errors that led to the demolition.
1991 May 8
CIA Director William H. Webster announced his retirement; he was eventually succeeded by Robert Gates.
1991 May 15
Defense lawyers released docs claiming Noriega is "CIA's man in Panama."
1991 Jul 9
Former CIA officer Alan D. Fiers pleaded guilty to two misdemeanor charges in the Iran-Contra affair.
1991 Sep 16
Confirmation hearings began on the nomination of Robert Gates to head the CIA.
1991 Nov 5
The Senate confirmed Robert M. Gates as CIA director.
1991 Nov 12
Robert Gates was sworn in as CIA director.
US Customs intercepted a large cocaine shipment and began investigations. It was found to be part of a CIA operation out of Venezuela.
The president of Rochester Inst. of Technology (RIT) resigned following a scandal over CIA influence on research and curriculum, and his own work for the agency.
Emmanuel "Toto" Constant headed the Front for the Advancement and Progress of Haiti. He was also a paid US CIA agent and members of FRAPH were believed responsible for many of the 3,000 political killings over this period. Louis-Jodel Chamblain co-founded FRAPH.
1992 Mar 12
Efraim Banaca Velasquez, a guerilla leader in Guatemala married to an American lawyer (Jennifer Harbury), disappeared and was later murdered. Secret US government files later disclosed that the Guatemalan colonel, Julio Roberto Alpirez, oversaw the interrogation and debriefing and that he was on CIA payroll. A suit filed by Harbury in 1995 against a list of US officials was dismissed in 1999 and reinstated in 2000 on appeal.
1992 Aug 26
A federal judge declared a mistrial in the Iran-Contra cover-up trial of former CIA spy chief Clair George. George was convicted of perjury in a retrial, but was then pardoned by President H.W. Bush.
1992 Sep 12
In Peru the Shining Path guerilla leader Abimael Guzman was captured by police chief Ketin Vidal with help from a CIA operative nick-named “Superman.” Oscar Ramirez, aka Feliciano, took over the leadership. Guzman, a former philosophy professor, was tried by a military court and sentenced to life in jail. The verdict was overturned in Jan 2003.
1992 Dec 9
Former CIA spy chief Clair George was convicted of lying to Congress about the Iran-Contra affair. President Bush pardoned him.
The US set up the Iraqi National Congress (INC) in Irbil, northern Iraq, as an alternative to the regime of Saddam Hussein. It was founded with CIA support in Vienna as a umbrella group for the Iraqi opposition. In 1999 it was led by Ahmed Chalabi.
The US began placing CIA spies among UN weapons inspectors only a year after the end of the Gulf War.
Emmanuel Constant was a paid agent of the US CIA in Haiti.
1993 Jan 25
Five commuters were shot outside the gates of the US CIA headquarters in Langley, Va. Two people died. Mir [Amil] Aimal Kasi, a Pakistani national, was tracked down for the shooting in 1997 in Afghanistan and returned to the US. He was convicted of murder in 1997 and was executed Nov 14, 2002.
1993 Aug 8
Freddie Woodruff (b.1947), CIA agent chief in Tbilisi, Georgia, was shot and killed during an outing with friends. Georgian authorities charged Anzor Sharmaidze (20), a volunteer soldier, with the murder. Sharmaidze confessed under torture and later said he was framed for the murder. In 2008 Sharmaidze was granted parole from prison.
1993 Oct 28
A US CIA report mentioned FRAPH and Emmanuel Constant in connection with the killing of Justice Minister Guy Mallory. The report says the Haitian junta’s chief of staff, Gen. Philippe Biamby and his associates coordinated the murder.
R. James Woolsey served as head of the US CIA.
1994 Feb 22
The Justice Department charged 31-year CIA counterintelligence veteran Aldrich H. Ames and his wife, Rosario, with selling national security secrets to the Soviet Union. He passed information from 1985 to 1994 that included the names of US agents. Ames was later sentenced to life in prison; his wife received a 5-year term. Ames’ disclosures led to the execution of at least 10 FBI-recruited Soviet and Warsaw Pact agents.
1994 Apr 28
Former CIA official Aldrich Ames, who had betrayed U.S. secrets to the Soviet Union and then Russia, pleaded guilty to espionage and tax evasion, and was sentenced to life in prison without parole. His wife Rosario also pleaded guilty.
1994 Jun
Harold James Nicholson, former CIA station chief, started passing information to Russia from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and collected as much as $180,000. He was arrested on Nov 18, 1996 for espionage. He pleaded guilty and drew a 23 1/2 year sentence in 1997.
1994 Sep 28
CIA Director R. James Woolsey announced reprimands of 11 senior officers in the wake of the Aldrich Ames spy scandal.
1994 Oct 21
The wife of CIA turncoat Aldrich Ames, Rosario Ames, was sentenced to five years in prison for her role in her husband's espionage.
1994 Nov 1
The US Senate Intelligence Committee released a report saying CIA Director R. James Woolsey's response to the Aldrich Ames spy case was "seriously inadequate," but that his predecessors were ultimately to blame for the scandal.
1994 Dec 28
CIA Director R. James Woolsey resigned, ending a tenure shadowed by the Aldrich Ames spy scandal.
1995 Mar
Sen. Robert Torricelli of the House Intelligence Oversight Committee accused the CIA of a cover-up in 2 Guatemalan murders. A review in 1996 showed that Alpirez was on the CIA payroll from 1988-1992 and that he was involved in the cover-up of the 1990 murder of Michael Devine and had participated in the 1992 interrogation and likely torture of Efraim Bamaca, a captured Guatemalan guerrilla, killed in captivity and married to an American lawyer.
1996 Apr 27
William Egan Colby (76), CIA Director, disappeared while canoeing near his waterfront home in southern Maryland. His body was found 8 days later. In 2003 John Prados authored "Lost Crusador," a biography of Colby.
1996 May 5
The body of former CIA director William E. Colby was found on a riverbank near his southern Maryland vacation home, eight days after he'd disappeared.
1996 Jun
In Iraq there was a coup attempt against Pres. Saddam Hussein. This coincided with the placement of 9 covert CIA operators on a weapons inspection team seeking to examine compounds maintained by the Republican Guards.
1996 Nov 18
Harold James Nicholson, former CIA station chief, was arrested for espionage. He was said to have started passing information to Russia from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in June of 1994 and collected [more than $120,000] as much as $180,000. Nicholson later pleaded guilty to espionage and was sentenced to 23 1/2 years in prison. He was spared a life sentence for cooperating with investigators.
1996 Dec 5
President Clinton announced the foreign policy team for his second term, including Madeleine Albright as the first female secretary of state, Sen. William Cohen of Maine, a Republican, as defense secretary and Anthony Lake as CIA director.
1996 Dec
CIA Director John Deutch stepped down as the top spy and was succeeded by George Tenet. An investigation soon began over classified materials on Deutch's personal computer.
The CIA obtained an al-Qaida training manual that suggested a 10-position leadership structure for members held in prison. In 2006 a report was made public that said prisoners at Guantanamo followed this structure.
Robert Gates (b.1943), former director of the CIA (1991-1993), authored his autobiography “From the Shadows.”
1997 Mar 11
Senate confirmation hearings for CIA Director-designate Anthony Lake began.
1997 Mar 17
Anthony Lake asked President Clinton to withdraw his nomination to be CIA director, saying the partisan confirmation process had "gone haywire."
1997 Mar 19
Following the withdrawal of Anthony Lake, President Clinton nominated acting CIA Director George Tenet to head the nation's spy agency. President Clinton departed Washington for a summit in Helsinki, Finland, with Russian President Boris Yeltsin.
1997 Mar 23
In Belarus American diplomat Serge Alexandrov, first secretary at the US embassy in Minsk, was ordered to leave the country for participating in an anti-government march. The Foreign Ministry accused him of being a CIA agent.
1997 Apr 9
The CIA announced that its own errors may have led to demolition of an Iraqi ammunition bunker filled with chemical weapons at Kamisiyah in 1991. The CIA apologized to Gulf War veterans for failing to do a better job in supplying information to U.S. troops who blew up an Iraqi bunker later found to contain chemical weapons.
1997 Jun 5
Harold J. Nicholson, the highest-ranking CIA officer ever caught spying against his own country, was sentenced to 23 1/2 years in prison for selling defense secrets to Russia after the Cold War. Officials later claimed that he and his son continued to make contact with Russian operatives. In 2009 Nicholson and his son were arraigned on charges of money laundering and acting as agents of a foreign government.
1997 Jun 17
Mir Aimal Kasi, suspected in the shooting deaths of two CIA employees outside agency headquarters in January 1993, was brought to Fairfax, Va., to face trial after being arrested in Pakistan. He was later convicted and sentenced to death.
1997 Aug 27
A secret CIA report acknowledged that the CIA knew of human rights abuses by the Honduran military in the 1980s. It was declassified in 1998.
1997 Sep
In Poland Col. Ryszard Kuklinski was cleared of spy charges after a military court ruled that he acted in Poland’s best interests. He had served as a US CIA spy and reported on activities from 1972-1981.
1997 Oct 15
The US CIA disclosed that its annual budget for spy services totaled $26.6 billion.
1997 Nov 10
A jury in Fairfax, Va., convicted Mir Aimal Kasi of one count of capital murder, one count of first-degree murder and eight additional charges stemming from a shooting attack outside CIA headquarters in January 1993.
1997 Nov 12
Four U.S. businessmen and a Pakistani were killed by gunmen in Karachi, Pakistan, apparently in retaliation for the murder conviction of Mir Aimal Kasi in the shooting deaths of two CIA employees.
1997 Nov 14
A jury in Fairfax, Va., decided that Pakistani national Mir Aimal Kasi should get the death penalty for gunning down two CIA employees outside agency headquarters. Kasi was sentenced to death in January 1998. He was executed Nov 14, 2002.
1998 Jan 23
A judge in Fairfax, Va., sentenced Mir Aimal Kasi to death for an assault rifle attack outside CIA headquarters in 1993 that killed two men and wounded three other people. Kasi was executed November 2002.
1998 Mar 20
George Tenet, director of the CIA, disclosed that $26.7 billion was the 1998 budget secret intelligence activities, one-tenth the overall US military budget.
1998 Apr 3
Douglas Fred Groat, a disgruntled spy fired by the CIA, was charged with espionage and extortion. Groat later pleaded guilty to extortion, and was sentenced to five years in prison.
1998 May
Samuel Cummings, a former CIA employee and int’l arms seller, died in Monaco. Cummings became a billionaire selling guns to guerrillas and dictators worldwide.
1998 Jun 25
Albanian security personnel (SHIK) under CIA guidance arrested Shawki Salama Attiya, a Tirana cell forger. Over the next month they made a successful raids on more suspected members of the Egyptian Jihad terrorist organization. The suspected terrorists were turned over to anti-terrorist officials in Egypt, where they delivered forced confessions following torture.
1998 Aug 4
The Egyptian Jihad under Dr. Zawahri denounced the CIA-led arrests in Albania and said Americans should soon receive a response "in the only language that they understand."
1998 Sep 25
Douglas Groat, a former CIA covert operator, was sentenced to 5 years in prison after admitting that he attempted to extort $1 million from the agency with threats to disclose how the US intercepts foreign communications.
1998 Oct 21
Pres. Clinton signed a $520 billion spending bill that provided $17.9 billion for the IMF and $1.1 billion as a down payment for new teachers. It was shipped to him just before the 105th Congress recessed. The CIA received a supplemental $1.8 billion.
The CIA began to send teams of American officers to northern Afghanistan to convince Ahmed Shah Masood to capture and perhaps kill Osama bin Laden.
Jordan received ok from the American CIA to sell 50,000 surplus AK-47 assault rifles to Peru. Many of the rifles went to leftist guerrillas in Colombia and Vladimiro Montesinos, Peru’s spy chief, was implicated.
The Dalai Lama acknowledged receiving $1.7 million a year in the 1960s from the US CIA, but denied having personally benefited.
1999 Aug 20
In a highly unusual move, the CIA pulled the security clearances for former Director John Deutch for keeping secret files on an unsecured home computer.
1999 Oct 12
In Pakistan Gen'l. Pervez Musharraf led a military coup after PM Shariff tried to fire him and replace him with Gen'l. Zia Uddin. Musharraf avoided martial law and left the parliament intact. Sharif refused to let a passenger plane land in Karachi with 198 people aboard that included Gen. Musharraf. The coup cut short a Pakistani commando operation set up by the CIA to get Osama bin Laden in Afghanistan. In 2009 the Pakistani Supreme Court acquitted Sharif of hijacking charges.
1999 Oct 26
The US CIA agreed to give Germany copies of some 32,000 files that belonged to the Stasi, the former East German intelligence service. The CIA acquired the files in 1989.
1999 Oct
Igor Sutyagin, a Russian scholar, was arrested on charges that he sold information on nuclear submarines and missile warning systems to a British company, that Russian investigators said was a CIA cover. Sutyagin was found guilty of espionage in 2004.
Gary Webb (1955-2004), San Jose news reported, authored “Dark Alliance: The CIA, the Contras, and the Crack Cocaine Explosion.”
2000 Jan
In Malaysia terrorists held a meeting in Kuala Lumpur. The US CIA informed the FBI that Khalid Al-Midhar had a US visa. Midhar was later one of the Sep 11, 2001, terrorists.
2000 Feb
In Egypt Ahmed Osman Saleh and Ahmed Ibrahim al-Naggar, members of the Egyptian Jihad, were hanged for their connections to terrorist cases. They had been pulled out of Albania in 1998 by Albanian Security (SHIK) working with the CIA.
2000 Apr 2
It was reported that a Nov. 1999, 79-page CIA report: "International Trafficking in Women to the United States: A Contemporary Manifestation of Slavery," claimed 50,000 victims per year in the US.
2000 Apr 8
The Central Intelligence Agency confirmed that personnel action had been taken following the mistaken bombing of the Chinese embassy during the NATO war against Yugoslavia; one employee was reportedly fired.
2001 Jan 5
In 2007 it was reported that a French intelligence document dated to this day warned that al-Qaida was at work on a hijacking plot. The information was passed on to the CIA. Documents on Osama bin Laden's terror network were drawn up by the French spy service, the DGSE, between July 2000 and October 2001.
2001 Feb 18
Robert Philip Hanssen (56), senior FBI agent, was arrested for spying. He had allegedly passed information to the Russians for 15 years. It was believed that he had betrayed the construction of a tunnel under the Soviet Embassy in Washington. He pleaded guilty July 3 to avoid execution. His disclosures were later reported to have played a role in the execution or jailing of at least 3 Russians and threatened the identity of another 50 people. In 2002 David A. Wise authored: "The Bureau and the Mole." Hanssen was sentenced to life in prison on May 10, 2002.
2001 Mar 23
It was reported that the Bush administration had removed the CIA as a broker between Israeli and Palestinian security services.
2001 Apr 28
It was reported that the CIA had released some 10,000 pages of documents on 20 Nazis that included Hitler, Eichmann, Mengele, Barbie, Mueller, Waldheim and Hoettl.
2001 May
Canadian journalist Kathy Gannon came across a book in Afghanistan titled “Encyclopedia of Jihad” and passed it on to the CIA.
2001 Jun 5
Pres. Bush sent George Tenet, the CIA director, to help Middle East security talks.
2001 Jun 12
Israel and the Palestinians agreed to a cease-fire following 6 days of mediation by US CIA director George Tenet.
2001 Jul 10
George Tenet, director of the CIA, allegedly met with Condoleeza Rice and warned her of an imminent al-Qaida attack. News of the meeting was only made public in 2006.
2001 Aug 17
US CIA Director George Tenet briefed Pres. Bush in Texas on day-to-day threats facing the US.
2001 Aug 21
The CIA placed Khalid Al-Midhar and Nawaf Alhazmi under suspicion as part of the investigation in the bombing of the destroyer Cole in Yemen. The 2 were among the hijackers who commandeered the jet that hit the Pentagon on Sep 11.
2001 Aug 31
US CIA Director George Tenet briefed Pres. Bush at the White House on day-to-day threats facing the US. Tenet did not mention the Aug. 16 arrest of Zacarias Moussaoui, an Islamic fundamentalist for overstaying a visa after training on a Boeing 747 flight simulator.
2001 Nov 25
Taliban troops near Mazar-e-Sharif staged a prison revolt and hundreds were reported killed. US marines landed near Kandahar marking the 1st major use of US ground troops in Afghanistan. 5 Americans were injured by an American bomb and 1 CIA agent, Johnny Michael Spann (32), was reportedly killed.
2001 Nov 28
Officials recovered the body of CIA officer Johnny "Mike" Spann from a prison compound in Mazar-e-Sharif after northern alliance rebels backed by U.S. airstrikes and special forces quelled an uprising by Taliban and al-Qaida prisoners.
The US Navy Engineering Logistics Office issued at least 10 classified contracts to US aviation companies to fly terror suspects to countries known to practice torture. The CIA also played a role in the operations.
The US National Archives signed a secret agreement with the CIA permitting the spy agency to withdraw from public access records it considered to have been improperly declassified. A similar agreement was signed with the Air Force in 2002. This news was only made public in 2006.
2002 Jan 10
A CIA report said China, North Korea and Iran will probably have long-range missile capable of reaching the US by 2015.
2002 Feb
Joseph C. Wilson IV, former US diplomat and veteran of the diplomatic wars of Iraq and Africa, was sent on a secret mission to Niger to determine if Iraqis had tried to purchase yellowcake uranium from Africa to build nuclear weapons. Wilson spent a week in Niger chatting with locals about the allegation, coming to the conclusion that the yellowcake charges were probably unfounded. His wife, Valerie Plame, was a CIA operative. In 2006 it was reported that Plame was part of an operation tracking the proliferation of nuclear weapons material into Iran.
2002 Mar 28
A US diplomat, reportedly the CIA station chief, was pulled from Belgrade following accusations that he was receiving military secrets.
2002 Mar
In Cuba Anthony Boadle began working as Reuters' bureau chief and continued through 2008. He published reports favoring local counterrevolutionaries and the interests of the United States and the European Union. In 2011 Cuban state-television accused Boadle of working as a CIA operative.
2002 Apr 10
In Russia the FSB, successor to the KGB, accused the CIA of trying to steal military secrets. US diplomat Yunju Kensinger and David Patterson were identified as agents posing as US Embassy officials.
2002 May 6
In Afghanistan the CIA fired a missile from a Predator in an attempt to kill Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, head of Hezb-e-Islami, and his top aides outside Kabul.
2002 May 6
Daan Goosen, South Africa scientist, passed a vial of genetically engineered bacteria to a retired US CIA officer and offered an entire collection of pathogens developed in SA bio-weapons research for $5 million and immigrations permits for 19 associates and family members. The deal collapsed.
2002 Jun 3
US CIA director George Tenet met with Israeli leaders as Israel stepped up seizures of Arab land for use as security buffer zones.
2002 Jun 4
Pres. Bush said the CIA and FBI had failed to communicate adequately before the Sept. 11, 2001, terror attacks; Congress began extraordinary closed-door hearings into intelligence lapses.
2002 Jun 16
The Bush administration revealed a secret plan to for the CIA to undermine and possibly kill Iraqi Pres. Saddam Hussein. [see Apr 4]
2002 Jun 17
A converted C-130 air tanker crashed over a flaming ridge near Walker in Mono County, Ca., and 3 crew members were killed. It was later reported that the 1956 plane had been used by the CIA and lacked maintenance records.
2002 Sep 26
US immigration officials seized Maher Arar, a Syrian-born Canadian, after his name popped up on a watch list at JFK. US officials refused to allow legal council or a phone call. The CIA questioned him and then handed him over to Syrian intelligence where he was held and tortured for 10 months before being released. The case came to be called an instance of "torture by proxy." In 2006 a Canadian government report said the US "very likely" sent the software engineer to Syria, where he was tortured, based on the false accusation by Canadian authorities that he was suspected of links to al-Qaida.
2002 Oct 22
Richards Helms (89), CIA director who was fired by Richard Nixon, died. In 2003 his autobiography "A Look Over My Shoulder," co-written with William Hood, was published.
2002 Oct 29
Gul Rahman, suspected of links to al-Qaida, was picked up from a home in Islamabad and taken with four other people to a CIA black site called the Salt Pit near the Kabul Airport. He was stripped naked, doused in cold water and then left to die in the CIA-run prison. Rahman died Nov. 20, 2002, but his identity was not known until revealed by an Associated Press investigation in March 2010.
2002 Nov 14
Pakistani Aimal Khan Kasi (Kansi) was put to death by injection at a prison in Jarratt, Va., for the slayings of two CIA employees in 1993. [see Nov 14, 1997}
2003 Feb 17
American CIA operatives snatched Egyptian cleric Hassan Mustafa Osama Nasr (Abu Omar) from his house in Milan and took him to Egypt, where he was jailed, tortured and released. In 2005 an Italian judge ordered the arrest of 13 American suspects on charges of kidnapping. In 2009 Nasr asked for euro10 million (nearly $15 million) in damages from the American and Italian defendants charged in his abduction.
2003 Mar 1
In Pakistan a joint raid outside Islamabad by CIA and Pakistani agents led to the arrest of Khalid Shaikh Mohammed (Khaled Sheikh Mohammed), the suspected mastermind of the Sept. 11, 2001 terror attacks, along with 2 others. Documents and computer files later revealed that the al Qaeda biochemical weapons program was well advanced.
2003 Mar
Majid Khan, a 1999 graduate of a Baltimore-area high school, was seized in Pakistan and held until 2006 in secret CIA custody. In September 2006, US authorities transferred him and other high-value detainees to Guantanamo, where they may be charged and face prosecution under a new military tribunal system.
2003 Apr 10
In Najaf clerics Haider al-Kadar, a widely hated loyalist of Saddam, and Abdul Majid al-Khoei, a high-ranking Shiite cleric and son of one of the religion's most prominent spiritual leaders, were hacked to death at the shrine of Imam Ali by a crowd during a meeting of reconciliation. Majid al-Khoei had been give as much as $13 million by the CIA to cultivate supporters.
2003 Jun 12
Lewis “Scooter” Libby, chief of staff to VP Dick Cheney, 1st learned of CIA officer Valery Plame in a conversation with VP Cheney. In 2005 Libby told a Grand Jury that he was authorized to disclose information about the National Intelligence Estimate to the press by his superiors.
2003 Jun 13
Richard Armitage, Deputy Sec. of State, told Bob Woodward about CIA operative Valerie Plame. Woodward testified to this in 2007 during the Scooter Libby trial.
2003 Jun 21
In Afghanistan Abdul Wali (28), a detainee held at a US base, died following 2 days of interrogation. In 2004 David A. Passaro, former Army Ranger, was charged with assault in connection to Wali’s death. In 2006 Passaro, a former CIA contractor, was convicted in North Carolina of assaulting Abdul Wali with a metal flashlight. In 2007 Passaro was sentenced to 8 ½ years in prison.
2003 Jun 23
Judith Miller, reporter for the NY Times, met with Lewis “Scooter” Libby, chief of staff for VP Dick Cheney, who gave her information about CIA operative Valery Plame. Reporter Bob Woodward also spoke with Libby on this day and on June 27 and in 2005 testified that Libby made no mention of Plame. Woodward did say another senior government official told him about Plame and her role in the CIA in mid-June.
2003 Jul 6
Joseph Wilson, former American ambassador, criticized the Bush administration for the way it used intelligence to justify the war in Iraq. He alleged that Pres. Bush had falsely accused Iraq of trying to buy uranium from Niger. Two White House officials soon called at least 6 Washington journalists and told them that Wilson’s wife, Valerie Plame, was an undercover CIA agent who had worked in Niger. A State Dept. memo was soon sent to Colin Powell on how Wilson got sent to Niger and the role of his wife.
2003 Jul 7
Pres. Bush departed for a 5-country African tour. In 2007 Ari Fleischer, former White House press secretary, said he had lunch with Scooter Libby on this day and was told by Libby that Ambassador Wilson had been sent to Africa by his wife, Valerie Plame, who worked for the CIA. Wilson had criticized the Bush administration the previous day for the way it used intelligence to justify the war in Iraq.
2003 Jul 9
Karl Rove, senior advisor to Pres. Bush, spoke with syndicated columnist Robert Novak about diplomat Joseph Wilson and his wife Valerie Plame. About this same time Rove also spoke with Matthew Cooper, Time’s White House correspondent, and mentioned Wilson and Plame. In 2006 Novak acknowledged that 3 administration sources, including Rove and CIA spokesman Bill Harlow, had provided him information.
2003 Jul 11
CIA Director George Tenet took blame for Pres. Bush's State of the Union discredited claim that uranium from Africa had been shipped to Iraq.
2003 Jul 12
Former White House press secretary Ari Fleischer leaked the identity of a CIA operative (Valerie Plame) to Washington Post reporter Walter Pincus during a phone call. Pincus testified to this in 2007 as the first defense witness in the CIA leak trial.
2003 Jul 14
Columnist Robert Novak identified Valerie Plame as a CIA officer. Joseph Wilson, former American ambassador, had earlier alleged (July 6) that Pres. Bush had falsely accused Iraq of trying to buy uranium from Niger. Two White House officials soon called at least 6 Washington journalists and told them that Wilson’s wife, Valerie Plame, was a undercover CIA agent who had worked in Niger. In 2006 Richard Armitage, former Deputy Sec. of State, said he had confessed to the FBI on Oct 1, 2003, that he told Robert Novak about Valerie Plame during a July 8, 2003, meeting.
2003 Sep 29
US The Justice Department launched a full-blown criminal investigation into who leaked the name of CIA officer Valerie Plame, the wife of ex-Ambassador Joseph Wilson, and President Bush the next day directed his White House staff to cooperate fully. The White House denied that President Bush's top political adviser, Karl Rove, had leaked a CIA agent's identity to retaliate against an opponent of the administration's Iraq policy. [see Jul 14, 2003, Jun 30, 2005]
2003 Sep 30
The FBI began a full-scale criminal investigation into whether White House officials had illegally leaked the identity of undercover CIA officer Valerie Plame.
2003 Oct 25
In Afghanistan CIA operatives William Carlson, 43, of Southern Pines, N.C., and Christopher Glenn Mueller, 32, of San Diego were ambushed and killed near the village in Shkin in Paktika province while "tracking terrorists."
2003 Oct
Donald Rumsfeld approved a CIA request to hold a suspected Iraqi terrorist in secret and shield his detention from the Red Cross.
2003 Dec 31
Security forces boarded a bus in Macedonia and snatched a German citizen named Khaled el-Masri (b.1963). For the next five months, el-Masri was a ghost. Only a select group of CIA officers knew he had been whisked to a secret prison for interrogation in Afghanistan. He was the wrong guy. El-Masri was dumped in Albania in a remote hillside on May 28, 2004, without explanation or apology. Five months later Germany withdrew warrants for the arrest of 13 CIA agents.
2003 Dec
Dennis Montgomery, a California computer programmer, reported that hidden in the crawl bars broadcast by Al Jazeera, someone had planted information about specific American-bound flights from Britain, France and Mexico that were hijacking targets. CIA officials rushed the information to Pres. Bush, who ordered those flights to be turned around or grounded before they could enter American airspace. Montgomery had patented computer codes that he claimed could find terrorist plots hidden in broadcasts of Al Jazeera. His codes were later believed to be fake. In 2011 Montgomery faced charges of trying to pass $1.8 million in bad checks at Las Vegas casinos.
A CIA report said that the Al-Rajhi Bank in Saudi Arabia had served as a conduit for terrorist transactions since at least the mid-1990s.
2004 Jan 28
David Kay, former head of the CIA's weapons search team in Iraq, told Congress no weapons of mass destruction had been found and that prewar intelligence was "almost all wrong." In 2007 Bob Drogin authored “Curveball: Spies, Lies, and the Con Man Who Caused a War.” Curveball was the code name for an Iraqi chemical engineer who turned up in Germany in 1999 and served as the source for Iraq’s chemical and biological weapons programs. In 2011 Rafid Ahmed Alwan al-Janabi, identified as the informer called "Curveball," said he is proud that he lied about his country developing mobile biological warfare labs.
2004 Feb 5
CIA Director George Tenet acknowledged that US spy agencies may have over-estimated Iraq's illicit weapons capabilities.
2004 Jun 3
Pres. Bush said CIA Director George Tenet, has resigned for personal reasons. Tenet announced his resignation amid a controversy over intelligence lapses about suspected weapons of mass destruction in Iraq and the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks.
2004 Jun 24
Federal investigators questioned President Bush for more than an hour in connection with the news leak of a CIA operative's name.
2004 Aug 10
Pres. Bush nominated Porter J. Goss, Florida Republican congressman, to head the CIA. Goss spent most of his career as a clandestine operative in Latin America.
2004 Aug 11
An Islamic Web site carried a videotape that appeared to show militants in Iraq beheading a man identified as a CIA agent. The authenticity of the videotape could not be verified immediately.
2004 Aug 27
President Bush signed executive orders designed to strengthen the CIA director's power over the nation's intelligence agencies and create a national counterterrorism center.
2004 Nov 12
John McLaughlin, deputy director of the CIA, resigned after a series of confrontations over the past week between senior operations officials and Patrick Murray, the CIA Director Porter J. Goss's new chief of staff. The riff left the agency in turmoil.
2004 Nov 15
Top CIA officials, Stephen Kappes and Michael Sulick announced their resignations after reported disputes with new Director Peter J. Goss.
An anonymous author, a senior CIA analyst, published “Imperial Hubris: Why the West Is Losing the War on Terror.”
The CIA hired Blackwater USA as part of a secret program to locate and assassinate top operatives of Al-Qaida. Blackwater of North Carolina, later renamed Xe Services, helped with planning, training and surveillance until the unsuccessful program was cancelled.
2005 Mar 3
President Bush visited CIA headquarters, where he promised agency employees they would retain an “incredibly vital” role in safeguarding the nation’s security despite the creation of a new post of national director of intelligence.
2005 Apr 25
The CIA's top weapons hunter in Iraq, Charles Duelfer, said his search for weapons of mass destruction had been "exhausted" without finding any.
2005 Jun 9
Pres Bush nominated CIA and FBI veteran Henry Crumpton as the State Department's coordinator for counterterrorism policy. President Bush defended the USA Patriot Act, saying it had made America safer and should be made permanent.

2005 Jun 24
An Italian official said a judge has ordered the arrest of 13 CIA agents for allegedly helping deport an imam to Egypt as part of U.S. anti-terrorism efforts. The agents are suspected in the seizure of an Egyptian-born imam identified as Abu Omar on the streets of Milan in February 2003.
2005 Jun 30
Time editor Norman Pearlstein agreed to hand over notes relating to the CIA-leak probe. The next day Lawrence O’Donnell broke the story that the e-mails that Time turned over to the prosecutor that day reveal that Karl Rove is the source Matt Cooper is protecting. [see Jul 14, 2003, Sep 29, 2003]
2005 Jul 6
NY Times reporter Judith Miller was jailed for refusing to name her CIA-leak source (2003) for a never-written article on CIA officer Valerie Plame. She was freed after 85 days when Lewis Libby (55), chief of staff for VP Cheney, released her from a claim of confidentiality. She agreed to testify before a federal grand jury.
2005 Jul 17
Time magazine's Matthew Cooper said a 2003 phone call with White House political adviser Karl Rove was the first he heard about the wife of Bush administration critic Joseph Wilson apparently working for the CIA.
2005 Jul 20
A Milan prosecutor sought arrest warrants for six more purported CIA operatives, accusing them of helping plan the kidnapping of an Egyptian radical Muslim cleric.
2005 Jul 25
An appeals court in Milan, Italy, issued arrest warrants for six more purported CIA operatives accused of helping plan the 2003 kidnapping of a radical Egyptian Muslim cleric.
2005 Sep 29
NY Times reporter Judith Miller was released from 85 days of federal detention after agreeing to testify in a criminal probe into the leak of a covert CIA officer's identity.
2005 Sep 30
Out of jail after 85 days, New York Times reporter Judith Miller testified before a grand jury investigating the leak of CIA operative Valerie Plame's identity.
2005 Oct 13
US intelligence officials announced the establishment of a National Clandestine Service to run CIA operations and coordinate activities with the Pentagon and FBI.
2005 Oct 28
US prosecutor Patrick Fitzgerald released a 22-page indictment with five charges against I. Lewis "Scooter" Libby Jr. regarding the Valerie Plame case. They carried a total maximum penalty of 30 years in prison and $1.25 million in fines. It portrayed Libby as a serial liar who recklessly mishandled national security screts. Libby immediately resigned as top aide to VP Cheney.
2005 Nov 2
The Washington Post reported that the CIA has been hiding and interrogating al Qaeda captives at a secret facility in Eastern Europe as part of a covert global prison system that has included sites in 8 countries and was set up after the September 11, 2001, attacks.
2005 Nov 3
European Union officials said they would investigate a report that the CIA set up secret jails in Eastern Europe to interrogate top al-Qaida suspects. The international Red Cross also said it asked the US to let a representative visit detainees if such a facility exists. At least 10 nations denied that the prisons were in their territory. Human Rights Watch in New York said it has evidence indicating the CIA transported suspected terrorists captured in Afghanistan to Poland and Romania.
2005 Nov 3
Vice President Dick Cheney's former chief of staff, I. Lewis Libby, pleaded not guilty to a five-count felony indictment in the CIA leak case.
2005 Nov 11
A new poll said most Americans say they aren't impressed by the ethics and honesty of the Bush administration, already under scrutiny for its justifications for an unpopular war in Iraq and its role in the leak of a covert CIA officer's identity.
2005 Nov 11
An Italian prosecutor said that the Milan prosecutor's office has asked for the extradition of 22 purported CIA operatives in the kidnapping of an Egyptian cleric in 2003.
2005 Nov 14
Spanish court officials said the National Court has received a prosecutor's report on allegations that the CIA used an airport on the Spanish island of Mallorca for a program of covert transfers of terror suspects. The 114-page report was submitted in July.
2005 Nov 28
EU Justice and Home Affairs Commissioner Franco Frattini warned that that any of the 25 bloc nations found to have operated secret CIA prisons could have their EU voting rights suspended.
2005 Dec 6
A German man filed a lawsuit in Virginia claiming he was held captive and tortured by US government agents after being mistakenly identified as an associate of the Sept. 11 hijackers. Khaled El-Masri said he was arrested Dec 31, 2003 while attempting to enter Macedonia for a holiday trip and flown to Afghanistan. During five months in captivity he was subjected to "torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment.
2005 Dec 9
Marc Garlasco, a Human Rights Watch investigator, said Poland served as the CIA's main center to detain terrorist suspects in Europe at clandestine prisons.
2005 Dec 10
Poland's PM Marcinkiewicz said that he has ordered a probe of allegations that the CIA ran secret prisons for terror suspects on Polish territory.
2005 Dec 23
An Italian judge issued EU arrest warrants for 22 purported CIA operatives in connection with the alleged kidnapping of an Egyptian cleric from a Milan street in 2003. the warrants allowed for the arrest of the suspects in any of the 25 EU member countries.
Admiral Stansfield Turner, former CIA chief (1977-1980) authored “Burn Before Reading,” an examination of how American presidents have interacted with their intelligence chiefs.
The US CIA destroyed at least 2 videotapes documenting the interrogation of 2 al-Qaida operatives, including Abu Zubaydah, dating back to 2002. CIA lawyers had told federal prosecutors in 2003 and 2005 that the CIA did not possess recordings of interrogations. The tapes were destroyed at the order of Jose Rodriquez Jr., head of the CIA’s clandestine service. In 2010 it was made public that Porter J. Goss, director of the CIA at the time, approved the Rodriguez decision shortly after the tapes were destroyed.
2006 Jan 14
Pakistan condemned a purported CIA airstrike on a border village, and said it was protesting to the U.S. Embassy over the attack that killed at least 18 people.
2006 Apr 20
The CIA fired Mary McCarthy, a top intelligence analyst, who admitted leaking classified information about a network of secret CIA prisons. She had provided information that contributed to a Washington Post story last year disclosing secret US prisons in Eastern Europe.
2006 Apr 26
EU Parliament investigators said the CIA has conducted more than 1,000 undeclared flights over European territory since 2001, a clear violation of an international treaty.
2006 May 5
Porter Goss (67), US CIA director, resigned under pressure after 18 months on the job.
2006 May 5
Valerie Plame, former CIA agent, agreed to sell her memoir for $2.5 million. The book, whose working title is "Fair Game," is scheduled to be published in the fall of 2007 by Crown Publishing, an imprint of Random House.
2006 May 5
CIA Director Porter Goss resigned in a second-term shake-up of President Bush's team.
2006 May 8
The White House said it will nominate General Michael Hayden to run the CIA and defended the move to name a top military officer to run the civilian intelligence agency.
2006 May 26
Air Force General Michael Hayden won confirmation to be the 20th CIA director in a 78-15 Senate vote.
2006 May 30
US Air Force Gen. Michael Hayden was sworn in as CIA director.
2006 Jun 7
Swiss senator Dick Marty, the head of an investigation into alleged CIA clandestine prisons, said 14 European nations colluded with US intelligence in a "spider's web" of secret flights and detention centers that violated international human rights law. Marty asserted that at least 7 European governments were complicit in the transports.
2006 Jun 13
In Washington DC Karl Rove’s lawyer said special prosecutor Patrick Fitzgerald would not bring charges against Rove in a 3-year-old CIA leak case.
2006 Jun 26
President Bush said it was "disgraceful" that newspapers had disclosed a secret CIA-Treasury program to track millions of financial records in search of terrorist suspects.
2006 Jul 5
Italian prosecutors said they had arrested two Italian intelligence officers and were seeking four more Americans as part of an investigation into the alleged CIA kidnapping of an Egyptian cleric in Milan in 2003.
2006 Jul 13
Former CIA officer Valerie Plame sued Vice President Dick Cheney, presidential adviser Karl Rove and other White House officials, saying they orchestrated a "whispering campaign" to destroy her career.
2006 Sep 6
Pres. Bush acknowledged that the CIA had subjected dozens of detainees to “tough” interrogation at secret prisons abroad and that 14 remaining detainees have been transferred to the detention center at Guantanamo Bay.
2006 Sep 7
Former Deputy Secretary of State Richard Armitage confirmed he was the source of a leak that had disclosed the identity of CIA employee Valerie Plame, saying he didn't realize Plame's job was covert.
2006 Sep 12
Joan Valerie Bondurant, former spy and UC prof. of political science, died in Tucson, Az. She had translated documents for the CIA in India where she met Gandhi and grew fascinated by satyagraha, a thesis of nonviolent resistance. Her books included “Conquest of Violence: The Gandhian Philosophy of Conflict” (1958).
2006 Oct 9
Khaled al-Masri (43), a Kuwaiti-born German citizen, testified in a Spanish court that he was kidnapped on Dec 31, 2003, at the Serbia-Macedonia border while on vacation, tortured by US intelligence agents for 23 days, then flown by the CIA to Afghanistan where he was imprisoned and abused for five months. He was released in Albania in May 2004 after the CIA discovered they had the wrong person.
2006 Oct 27
Swiss officials said authorities have found enough evidence to seek a full investigation into allegations the CIA was trying to obtain personal details of about 500 labor union members, most of them Arabs.
2007 Jan 19
British foreign secretary Margaret Beckett admitted that her government was aware of a secret CIA prison network before Pres. Bush acknowledged its existence in September.
2007 Jan 23
A special committee of the European Parliament approved a report alleging EU nations including Britain, Poland, Germany and Italy were aware of secret CIA flights over Europe and the abduction of terror suspects by US agents into clandestine detention centers.
2007 Feb 11
In Egypt Osama Hassan Mustafa Nasr, known as Abu Omar, was released. The Egyptian Muslim preacher had been allegedly kidnapped by CIA agents off the streets of Milan, Italy, on Feb 17, 2003, and taken to Egypt. It was reported that since the end of December seven women have been stabbed by a dark-skinned man in his 20s in Cairo’s Maadi suburb, whose richer areas are home to numerous embassies and many foreigners.
2007 Feb 13
Brent Wilkes, a former CIA official, was indicted on corruption charges related to ex-Congressman Randy Cunningham and defense contractors.
2007 Feb 13
David Passaro, a former CIA contract employee, was sentenced to 8 ½ years in prison for beating Afghan detainee Abdul Wali in July, 2003. Wali died 48 hours after interrogation.
2007 Feb 14
The European Parliament approved a controversial report accusing Britain, Germany, Italy and other European nations of turning a blind eye to CIA flights transporting terrorism suspects to secret prisons in an apparent breach of EU human rights standards.
2007 Feb 16
An Italian judge indicted 26 Americans and five Italians in the abduction of an Egyptian terror suspect on a Milan street in what would be the first criminal trial stemming from the CIA's extraordinary rendition program. The proceedings were later suspended pending a ruling on the Italian government's request to throw out the indictments.
2007 Feb 26
Pakistani security forces in Quetta reportedly captured Mullah Obaidullah Akhund, the former Taliban defense minister. US VP Cheney, accompanied by CIA deputy director Steve Kappes, made an unannounced stop in Pakistan en route to Afghanistan. Cheney held detailed talks with Pres. Musharraf, including a one-on-one lunch.
2007 Mar 6
Former US White House aide I. Lewis "Scooter" Libby was convicted of lying and obstructing an investigation into the leak of a CIA operative's identity. Sentencing was scheduled for June.
2007 Mar 16
Former CIA operative Valerie Plame told a House committee that White House and State Department officials had "carelessly and recklessly" blown her cover in a politically motivated smear of her husband, former Ambassador Joseph Wilson, for publicly disputing President Bush's assertion that Saddam Hussein was on the brink of acquiring a nuclear bomb.
2007 Apr 3
An AP investigation said CIA and FBI agents hunting for al-Qaida militants in the Horn of Africa have been interrogating terrorism suspects from 19 countries held at secret prisons in Ethiopia, which is notorious for torture and abuse.
2007 Apr 5
The US pressed Ethiopia for details on detainees from 19 nations taken to secret prisons there and interrogated by CIA and FBI agents.
2007 Apr 27
The Pentagon said it had taken custody of Abdul Hadi al-Iraqi, a senior al-Qaeda commander. Officials said al-Iraqi was handed over to the CIA in late 2006.
2007 Apr 28
In northwest Pakistan a suicide attacker detonated a bomb as Aftab Khan Sherpao, the interior minister, finished speaking at a public meeting, killing 28 people and wounding the official. Saud Memon (44), a suspect in the death of WSJ reporter Daniel Pearl, was dumped, badly injured and weighing less than 80 pounds, in front of his Karachi home. He had been secretly detained and interrogated by US and Pakistani intelligence.
2007 May 8
A federal judge in El Paso, Texas, dismissed immigration fraud charges against Luis Posada Carriles (79), a former CIA operative accused of masterminding a 1976 bombing of a Cuban civilian airplane along with 1997 bombings in Havana.
2007 May 24
The head of the UN nuclear agency said he agreed with CIA estimates that Iran was three to eight years from being able to make nuclear weapons and he urged the US and other powers to pursue talks with the Islamic country.
2007 Jun 8
A European investigator issued a report saying the CIA ran secret prisons in Poland and Romania from 2003 to 2005 to interrogate detainees in the war on terror.
2007 Jun 8
In Italy the first trial involving the CIA's extraordinary rendition program opened in the absence of all 26 American defendants accused of kidnapping an Egyptian terrorist suspect.
2007 Jun 27
A Swiss investigator said European governments have built a "wall of silence" surrounding their complicity with a CIA program that included holding terrorist suspects in secret jails.
2007 Jul 3
President Bush refused to rule out an eventual pardon for I. Lewis "Scooter" Libby after already commuting his prison sentence in the CIA leak case.
2007 Jul 19
A federal judge dismissed a lawsuit brought by former CIA operative Valerie Plame, who was demanding money from Bush administration officials she blamed for leaking her agency identity.
2007 Aug 9
Newly declassified documents said Canadian intelligence officials suspected that Maher Arar, a Syrian-born Canadian citizen detained by the US in 2002 as a terror suspect and deported, had been sent to a third country for torture as part of the CIA's "extraordinary rendition" program. Arar was detained in September 2002 by US authorities during a flight stopover in New York while returning home to Canada from a vacation in Tunisia.
2007 Sep 29
Iran's parliament voted to designate the CIA and the US Army as "terrorist organizations," a largely symbolic response to a US Senate resolution seeking a similar designation for Iran's Revolutionary Guards.
2007 Oct 3
President Hugo Chavez accused the US of trying to spur a military rebellion, saying the CIA is behind the distribution of leaflets inside army barracks calling for his ouster.
2007 Dec 6
CIA Director Michael Hayden revealed the agency had videotaped its interrogations of two terror suspects in 2002 and destroyed the tapes three years later out of fear they would leak to the public and compromise the identities of US questioners.
2007 Dec 7
US Congressional Democrats demanded a full Justice Department investigation into whether the CIA had obstructed justice by destroying videotapes documenting the harsh 2002 interrogations of two alleged terrorists.
2007 Dec 8
The US Justice Department and CIA announced a joint inquiry into the spy agency's destruction of videotapes of interrogations of two suspected terrorists.
2007 Dec 11
The US Senate Intelligence Committee took closed-door testimony from CIA Director Michael Hayden on how videotapes of terror suspect interrogations were made, then destroyed.
George Tenet, former CIA director, with Bill Harlow authored “At the Center of the Storm: My Years at the CIA.”
Tim Weiner authored “Legacy of Ashes: The History of the CIA.”
Valerie Wilson (aka Valerie Plame), former CIA agent, authored “Fair Game: My Life as a Spy, My Betrayal by the White House.” Her cover was revealed in 2003.
Joseph Dominick Pistone (b.1939), alias Donnie Brasco, authored “Donnie Brasco: Un-finished Business.” Pistone, a former FBI agent, worked undercover for six years (1976-1981) infiltrating the Bonanno family and to a lesser extent the Colombo Family, branches of the Mafia in NYC.
2008 Jan 7
Philip Agee (72), a former CIA agent who became an outspoken critic of Washington's Cuba policy, died in a Havana hospital following ulcer surgery. Agee quit the CIA in 1969 after 12 years working mostly in Latin America at a time when leftist movements were gaining prominence and sympathizers. His 1975 book "Inside the Company: CIA Diary," cited alleged CIA misdeeds against leftists in the region that included a 22-page list of purported agency operatives.
2008 Jan 16
CIA analyst Tom Donahue disclosed that criminals have been able to hack into computer systems via the Internet and cut power to several cities outside the US. He offered few specifics on what actually went wrong.
2008 Jul 30
The NY Times reported that a top Central Intelligence Agency official has traveled to Islamabad and confronted senior officials with evidence of ties between Pakistan's spy agency and militants operating in that country's tribal areas.
2008 Sep 17
A CIA missile strike in South Waziristan killed 6 people as US Adm. Mike Mullen assured Pakistan’s leaders that the US respects Pakistan’s sovereignty.
2008 Sep 29
Kyle Dustin Foggo (53), former executive director of the CIA, pleaded guilty to defrauding the government. His guilty plea to a single charge wiped out 27 additional counts. The case was linked to the corruption scandal involving Randy Cunningham, former Republican congressman from San Diego. In 2009 Foggo was sentenced to 37 months in prison.
2008 Sep
From Algeria Andrew Warren, a CIA station chief and a convert to Islam, was sent back to the United States after two women came forward with charges of rape after lacing their drinks with a drug.
Hugh Wilford authored “The Mighty Wurlitzer: How the CIA Played America,” an account of the CIA’s post war front groups.
Michael Scheuer, former CIA veteran, authored “Marching Toward Hell: American and Islam After Iraq.”
Ron Suskind authored “The Way of the World,” in which he claimed that the White House in 2003 ordered the CIA to forge a back-dated, handwritten letter from Tahir Jalil Habbush al-Tikriti, the head of Iraqi intelligence, to Saddam Hussein.
John Diamond authored “The CIA and the Culture of Failure: US Intelligence From the end of the Cold War to the Invasion of Iraq.”
2009 Jan 5
Pres. Elect Obama named William Panetta (70) to head the CIA.
2009 Jan 22
President Obama signed an executive order to shutter Guantanamo within one year, fulfilling his campaign promise to close a facility that critics around the world say violates the rights of detainees. Obama also banned the CIA from operating secret prisons.
2009 Feb 18
In Ecuador US diplomat Mark Sullivan was declared a “persona non grata” and told to leave. Pres. Correa later said Sullivan had directed CIA operations in Ecuador.
2009 Mar 2
The Obama administration threw open the curtain on years of Bush-era secrets, revealing anti-terror memos that claimed exceptional search-and-seizure powers and divulging that the CIA destroyed nearly 100 videotapes of interrogations and other treatment of terror suspects.
2009 Mar 6
The CIA destroyed a dozen videotapes of harsh interrogations of terror suspects, according to documents filed in a lawsuit over the government's treatment of detainees. The 12 tapes were part of a larger collection of 92 videotapes of terror suspects that the CIA destroyed. The extent of the tape destruction was disclosed through a suit filed by the American Civil Liberties Union against the government.
2009 Mar 11
Italy's highest court sided with the government and threw out key evidence in an alleged CIA kidnapping of an Egyptian terrorism suspect in Italy, dealing a blow to the trial of 26 Americans charged in the case.
2009 Apr 16
President Barack Obama announced his decision not to prosecute CIA operatives who used interrogation practices described by many as torture. He condemned the aggressive techniques, including waterboarding, shackling and stripping, used on terror suspects while promising not to legally pursue the perpetrators.
2009 Jun 23
CIA director Leon Panetta, learned of a nascent CIA counterterrorism program within the CIA, terminated it and the next day called an emergency meeting with the House and Senate Intelligence committees to inform them of the program and that it was canceled. Former Vice President Dick Cheney had directed the CIA in 2001 not to inform Congress about the nascent counterterrorism program, which developed plans to dispatch small teams to kill senior Al-Qaida terrorists.
2009 Oct 21
Lithuanian lawmakers demanded an investigation into allegations that the CIA had established a prison there for al-Qaida suspects. Leaders have denied that Lithuania had hosted clandestine detention centers.
2009 Oct 27
A Lithuanian lawmaker said there is no evidence that US airplanes with al-Qaida suspects ever landed in the Baltic country. A recent report by ABC News claimed the CIA had a secret prison in Vilnius from September 2004 through November 2005.
2009 Oct 27
The NY Times reported that the brother of Afghan President Hamid Karzai has been getting regular payments from the Central Intelligence Agency. The paper said Ahmed Wali Karzai is a suspected player in Afghanistan's opium trade and has been paid by the CIA over the past eight years for services that included helping to recruit an Afghan paramilitary force that operates at the CIA's direction in and around the southern city of Kandahar. Ahmed Wali Karzai denied reports that he has received regular payments from the CIA for much of the past eight years.
2009 Nov 4
An Italian judge found 23 Americans and two Italians guilty in the kidnapping of an Egyptian terror suspect, delivering the first legal convictions anywhere in the world against people involved in the CIA's extraordinary renditions program. The Americans and Italian agents were accused of kidnapping Osama Moustafa Hassan Nasr, also known as Abu Omar, on Feb. 17, 2003, in Milan, then transferring him to U.S. bases in Italy and Germany.
2009 Nov 5
Lithuania's parliament voted to investigate allegations that the Baltic state hosted a secret CIA prison for al Qaeda suspects.
2009 Dec 4
The New York Times reported that the White House has authorized the CIA to expand the use of unmanned aerial drones in Pakistan to track down and strike suspected Taliban and Al-Qaeda members.
2009 Dec 22
Lithuania said it may have hosted two 'war on terror' lock-ups used by American agents to interrogate suspected Al-Qaeda members. Arvydas Anusauskas, the head of an inquiry commission, said the first project was developed from 2002 and that a 2nd site was created in 2004. The probe found that five CIA-linked aircraft landed on Lithuanian soil from 2003 to 2006. Two touched down in Vilnius on February 3, 2003, and October 6, 2005. In the second case, border guards were barred from checking the plane. Three other aircraft landed at Palanga, on the Baltic coast, around 330 km from Vilnius, on January 2 and February 18, 2005, and March 25, 2006.
2009 Dec 30
In Afghanistan bombings killed 14 people, including 8 Americans and an Afghan in a suicide attack at a CIA base at the edge of Khost city, and 4 Canadian soldiers and a journalist by a roadside bomb in the southern Kandahar province. Humam Khalil Abu-Mulal al-Balawi (32), a physician from Jordan, was an Al-Qaida triple agent. 7 CIA employees and a Jordanian intelligence officer were among the victims. An airstrike by international forces in Helmand province killed 7 civilians, 2 Taliban and wounded another civilian. The attack took place after an international patrol came under fire from insurgents and called for air support. Suspected Taliban militants kidnapped 2 French journalists working for France's public television and 3 Afghan companions in Kapisa province.
2009 Dec 31
In northwest Pakistan a suspected US missile strike near Mir Ali hit a house and killed 3 people. In 2010 Pakistani tribesman Kareem Khan sought 500 million dollars in compensation from the CIA after his son and brother were killed in the drone attack.
The US shut down a $24 million off the books intelligence-gathering program to track down suspected insurgent leaders in Afghanistan. The CIA and some military officials had complained that Michael Furlong, a senior Defense Dept. official, had hired contractors to run the program.
2010 Feb 16
Pakistani intelligence officials said the Taliban's top military commander has been arrested in a joint CIA-Pakistani operation. Mullah Abdul Ghani Baradar, the group's No. 2 leader behind Afghan Taliban founder Mullah Mohammad Omar and a close associate of Osama bin Laden, was captured some days ago in Karachi.
2010 Jun 23
An industry source said the CIA has hired Xe Services, formerly known as Blackwater Worldwide, to guard facilities in Afghanistan and elsewhere. The contract was said to be worth about $100 million.
2010 Aug 18
CIA Director Leon Panetta said the CIA is opening a counterproliferation center to combat the spread of dangerous weapons and technology, a move that comes as Iran is on the verge of fueling up a new nuclear power plant.
2010 Aug 21
Roland Haas (58), a Georgia-based former Army Reserve intelligence officer, was found dead from a gunshot wound that pierced his femoral artery. In 2007 Haas had authored “Enter the Past Tense: My Secret Life as a CIA Assassin.” Several former CIA officials denounced the book as a hoax.
2010 Aug 27
The Washington Post reported that the CIA is making payments to a significant number of officials in Afghan President Hamid Karzai's administration. The Post also cited a former CIA official as saying that the CIA payments to Afghan officials were necessary because "the head of state is not going to tell you everything" and because Karzai often seems unaware of moves that members of his own government make.
2010 Sep 20
Libya's daily Oea newspaper reported that Douglas O'Reilly, a Canadian man, was detained after meeting a US diplomat suspected of being a CIA agent. He was detained on suspicion of spying on a planned BP offshore drilling project. O'Reilly claimed to be an archaeologist seeking to warn of the BP project's potential impact on archaeological sites. O'Reilly was given freedom to leave Libya on Sep 22.
2010 Sep 22
A US official in Washington confirmed reports that the CIA is running an all-Afghan paramilitary group in Afghanistan that has been hunting al-Qaida, Taliban, and other militant targets for the agency. A security professional in Kabul familiar with the operation said the 3,000-strong force was set up in 2002 to capture targets for CIA interrogation. Al-Jazeera cameraman Mohammad Nadir was arrested in Kandahar. In Helmand province a Danish soldier was killed and another wounded by a homemade bomb.
2010 Sep 22
A Polish prosecutor said his office has opened an investigation into whether Abd al-Rahim al-Nashiri, a Saudi man accused in the 2000 bombing of the USS Cole, was mistreated in a prison that the CIA allegedly ran in Poland.
2010 Oct 22
In Virginia Glenn Shriver (28) of Detroit pleaded guilty to trying to get a job with the Central Intelligence Agency in order to spy for China and to hiding contacts and money he got from Chinese intelligence agents. Shriver acknowledged that he met with Chinese officials about 20 times beginning in 2004 and that he received a total of about $70,000 from Chinese intelligence officers. His plea agreement called for a sentence of 48 months in prison.
2010 Dec 18
Pakistan's top spy agency denied that it helped unmask the CIA's station chief in Islamabad, dismissing speculation it was retaliating for a US lawsuit linking the Pakistani intelligence chief to the 2008 attacks in Mumbai, India. The station chief in Islamabad has operated as a virtual military commander in the US war against al-Qaida and other militant groups hidden along the Pakistan-Afghanistan border. His recall was made public a day earlier.
Bob Woodward authored “Obama’s Wars.” In it he alleged that some 3,000 CIA operatives are active in the tribal regions of Pakistan.
2011 Jan 23 In Pakistan Sultan Amir Tarar, a former Pakistani spy who helped the Taliban rise to power in Afghanistan, was reported to have died under captivity 10 months after he was seized in northwest Pakistan. Tarar, better known as Col. Imam, played a major role in funneling Pakistani support and training to Afghans fighting Soviet rule in the 1980s, a push in large part financed by the CIA. On Feb 19 the Pakistani Taliban claimed it had killed Tarar.
2011 Feb 14 Iran’s security forces cut phone lines and blockaded the home of an Iranian opposition leader in attempts to stop him attending a planned rally in support of Egypt's uprising. Eyewitnesses reported sporadic clashes in central Tehran's Enghelab or Revolution square between security forces and opposition protesters. Turkish President Abdullah Gul, who is on a visit to Iran, urged governments in the Middle East to listen to the demands of their people. Student Sanee Zhaleh (26) was shot dead during the opposition rally. Authorities later announced the arrest today of an Iranian man allegedly working for the CIA.
2011 Mar 16 Pakistan freed CIA contractor Raymond Allen Davis, who had shot and killed two Pakistani men, after the US paid $2.34 million in "blood money" to the victims' families. Davis, who was acquitted in court, claimed he acted in self-defense when he killed the two men on the street in the eastern city of Lahore.
2011 Mar 30 US officials revealed that the CIA has sent small teams of operatives into rebel-held eastern Libya while the White House debates whether to arm the opposition. The British government said Libyan Foreign Minister Moussa Koussa had arrived in Britain from Tunisia and resigned.
See also
  1. ^ "U.S. Department of State: Foreign Relations of the United States, 1945–1950, Emergence of the Intelligence Establishment". (United States Department of State): Document 292, Section 5. Retrieved 2007-04-15
  2. ^ Dulles, Allen W. (1963). The Craft of Intelligence. Harper & Row.
  3. ^ "John McCone and William Raborn: New Kind of DCI", Directors of Central Intelligence as Leaders of the U.S. Intelligence Community, Douglas F. Garthoff, CIA's Center for the Study of Intelligence
  4. ^ "Transcript of a recording of a meeting between President Richard Nixon and H. R. Haldeman in the oval office". 1972-06-23. Retrieved 2007-04-15.
  5. ^ Helms, Richard; Hood, William (2003). A Look over My Shoulder: A Life in the Central Intelligence Agency. Random House.
  6. ^ Colby, William; Peter Forbath (1978). Honourable Men: My Life in the CIA. London: Hutchinson. ISBN 009134820X. OCLC 16424505.
  7. ^ The George Bush Center for Intelligence - CIA, accessed February 26, 2006
  8. ^ George Herbert Walker Bush -, accessed February 26, 2006
  9. ^ "Fifteen DCIs' First 100 Days". Central Intelligence Agency Center for the Study of Intelligence. Retrieved 2008-05-01.
  10. ^ "CIA Briefings of Presidential Candidates; Chapter 5: In-Depth Discussions With Carter". Central Intelligence Agency: Center for the Study of Intelligence. Retrieved 2007-10-11.
  11. ^ Turner, Stansfield (1985). Secrecy and Democracy: The CIA in Transition. Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-395-35573-7.
  12. ^ Snepp, Frank (1977). Decent Interval: An Insider's Account of Saigon's Indecent End. Random House.
  13. ^ a b Snepp, Frank (1999). Irreparable Harm: A Firsthand Account of How One Agent Took On the CIA in an Epic Battle Over Secrecy and Free Speech. Random House.
  14. ^ Snepp v. US, 444 U.S. 507 (Supreme Court of the United States 1980). Text
  15. ^ The Power of Nightmares Part 1 "Baby it's cold outside"
  16. ^ a b Woodward, Bob (1987). Veil: The Secret Wars of the CIA 1981–1987. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 9780743274036.
  17. ^ Zoglin, Richard (October 12, 1987). "Did A Dead Man Tell No Tales?". Time
  18. ^ Gates, Robert (1996). From the Shadows. Touchstone. ISBN 0-684-81081-6.
  19. ^ Lawrence E. Walsh, Final report of the independent counsel for Iran/Contra matters, August 4, 1993, and in particular Chapter 16, "Robert M. Gates"
  20. ^ Lopez, Kathryn Jean (September 11, 2003). "Clinton’s Loss? How the previous administration fumbled on bin Laden". National Review Online
  21. ^ Kaufman, Paula (June 3, 2002). "Woolsey wary of more attacks; former CIA director James Woolsey says the U.S. could ensure a more peaceful world by toppling Iraq's Saddam Hussein and ceasing its toleration of Mideast tyrants". Insight on the News
  22. ^ "CIA's Historical Review Program", National Archives (NARA) electronic collections
  23. ^ "PC and the CIA",, Mar. 2, 2005
  24. ^ "The CIA Commits Over 100,000 Serious Crimes Per Year". 2006-07-16. Retrieved 2007-04-15.
  25. ^ a b "The Intelligence Community in the 21st Century, Staff Study, Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress". One Hundred Fourth Congress. 2006-07-16. Retrieved 2007-04-15.
  26. ^ Central Intelligence Agency Inspector General Report of Investigation Improper Handling of Classified Information By John M. Deutch, Feb. 18 , 2000
  27. ^ Ross, Sonya, "Clinton Pardons More Than 100", Washington Post, Jan. 20 , 2001
  28. ^ Coll,Steve (2005). Ghost Wars. Penguin. pp. 317, 354, 359–62..
  29. ^ Tenet, George (2007). At the Center of the Storm: My Years at the CIA. HarperCollins. pp. 121–2; cf. p.178..
  30. ^ a b Porch, Douglas; Wirtz, James J. (September 2002). "Surprise and Intelligence Failure". Strategic Insights I (7)
  31. ^ 9/11 Commission Report, chapter 10, p.332 (HTML version)
  32. ^ "CIA criticises ex-chief over 9/11". BBC. 2007-08-21. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
  33. ^ Woodward, Bob (2004). Plan of Attack. Simon & Schuster.
  34. ^ Scott Shane, Mark Mazzetti (27 April 2007). "Ex-C.I.A. Chief, in Book, Assails Cheney on Iraq". The New York Times
  35. ^ Patrick Martin (2002-03-06). "Further delay in US congressional investigation into September 11 attacks". World Socialist Web Site. Retrieved 2006-11-27.
  36. ^ Yet more turmoil at the CIA". Jane's. 11 May 2006[dead link]
  37. ^ Priest, Dana (2005-11-02). "CIA Holds Terror Suspects in Secret Prisons". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2007-02-19.
  38. ^ Associated Press (2006-09-06). "Bush: Top terror suspects to face tribunals". CNN. Archived from the original on 2006-09-11. Retrieved 2006-09-06.
  39. ^ "Bush admits to CIA secret prisons". BBC News. 2006-09-07. Retrieved 2007-04-15.
  40. ^ "CIA Releases Two Significant Collections of Historical Documents". Retrieved 2007-06-02.
  41. ^ a b Intelligence and Security with James Woolsey. Uncommon Knowledge. Filmed on January 14, 2009. Retrieved July 6, 2009.
  42. ^ a b Pickert, Kate (December 2, 2008). "CIA Director: Leon Panetta". Time. Retrieved July 6, 2009.

05.19.2011. 11:50

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